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			<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Bread</h1>
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									<div id="siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
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				<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="hatnote">For the American rock band, see <a href="/wiki/Bread_(band)" title="Bread (band)">Bread (band)</a>.  For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Bread_(disambiguation)" title="Bread (disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig">Bread (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<th style="text-align:left; padding:0.2em 2px 0.2em 0;">This article has multiple issues. <span style="font-weight: normal;">Please help <b><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bread&amp;action=edit">improve it</a></b> or discuss these issues on the <b><a href="/wiki/Talk:Bread" title="Talk:Bread">talk page</a></b>.</span></th>
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<td class="mbox-text"><span class="mbox-text-span">This article <b>needs additional citations for <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">verification</a></b>. <span class="hide-when-compact">Please help <a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bread&amp;action=edit">improve this article</a> by <a href="/wiki/Help:Introduction_to_referencing/1" title="Help:Introduction to referencing/1" class="mw-redirect">adding citations to reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.</span> <small><i>(June 2015)</i></small></span></td>
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<td class="mbox-text"><span class="mbox-text-span">This article <b>possibly contains <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:No_original_research" title="Wikipedia:No original research">original research</a></b>. <span class="hide-when-compact">Please <a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bread&amp;action=edit">improve it</a> by <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">verifying</a> the claims made and adding <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources#Inline_citations" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">inline citations</a>. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.</span> <small><i>(February 2015)</i></small></span></td>
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<table class="infobox hrecipe adr" style="width:22em">
<caption class="fn"><span>Bread</span></caption>
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<td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><a href="/wiki/File:Korb_mit_Br%C3%B6tchen.JPG" class="image"><img alt="Korb mit Brötchen.JPG" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Korb_mit_Br%C3%B6tchen.JPG/250px-Korb_mit_Br%C3%B6tchen.JPG" width="250" height="188" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Korb_mit_Br%C3%B6tchen.JPG/375px-Korb_mit_Br%C3%B6tchen.JPG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Korb_mit_Br%C3%B6tchen.JPG/500px-Korb_mit_Br%C3%B6tchen.JPG 2x" data-file-width="3456" data-file-height="2592" /></a>
<div style="padding-bottom:0.25em;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">Various leavened breads</div>
</td>
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<th scope="row" style="padding-top:0.245em;line-height:1.15em; padding-right:0.65em;">Main ingredients</th>
<td class="ingredient"><a href="/wiki/Flour" title="Flour">Flour</a>, <a href="/wiki/Water" title="Water">water</a></td>
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<td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.25em;"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/16px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/24px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/32px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="400" data-file-height="400" /> <a href="//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Search/Cookbook:_Bread" class="extiw" title="wikibooks:Special:Search/Cookbook: Bread">Cookbook: Bread</a>&#160; <img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/12px-Commons-logo.svg.png" width="12" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/18px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/24px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="1376" /> <a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" class="extiw" title="commons:Special:Search/Bread">Media: Bread</a></td>
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<p><b>Bread</b> is a <a href="/wiki/Staple_food" title="Staple food">staple food</a> prepared from a <a href="/wiki/Dough" title="Dough">dough</a> of <a href="/wiki/Flour" title="Flour">flour</a> and <a href="/wiki/Water" title="Water">water</a>, usually by <a href="/wiki/Baking" title="Baking">baking</a>. Throughout recorded history it has been popular around the world and is one of the oldest artificial foods, having been of importance since the dawn of <a href="/wiki/Agriculture#History" title="Agriculture">agriculture</a>.</p>
<p>There are many combinations and proportions of types of flour and other ingredients, and also of different traditional recipes and modes of preparation of bread. As a result, there are wide varieties of types, shapes, sizes, and textures of breads in various regions. Bread may be <a href="/wiki/Leaven" title="Leaven" class="mw-redirect">leavened</a> by many different processes ranging from the use of naturally occurring microbes (for example in <a href="/wiki/Sourdough" title="Sourdough">sourdough</a> recipes) to high-pressure artificial aeration methods during preparation or baking. However, some products are left unleavened, either for preference, or for traditional or religious reasons. Many non-cereal ingredients may be included, ranging from fruits and nuts to various fats. Commercial bread in particular, commonly contains additives, some of them non-nutritional, to improve flavor, texture, color, shelf life, or ease of manufacturing.</p>
<p>Depending on local custom and convenience, bread may be served in various forms at any meal of the day. It also is eaten as a snack, or used as an ingredient in other culinary preparations, such as fried items coated in crumbs to prevent sticking, or the bland main component of a <a href="/wiki/Bread_pudding" title="Bread pudding">bread pudding</a>, or <a href="/wiki/Stuffing" title="Stuffing">stuffings</a> designed to fill cavities or retain juices that otherwise might drip away.</p>
<p>Partly because of its importance as a basic foodstuff, bread has a social and emotional significance beyond its importance in nutrition; it plays essential roles in religious rituals and secular culture. Its prominence in daily life is reflected in language, where it appears in proverbs, colloquial expressions ("He stole the bread from my mouth"), in prayer ("Give us this day our daily bread") and even in the etymology of words, such as "<a href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/companion" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:companion">companion</a>" and "<a href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/company" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:company">company</a>" (literally those who eat/share bread with you).</p>
<p></p>
<div id="toc" class="toc">
<div id="toctitle">
<h2>Contents</h2>
</div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Types"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Types</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#Preparation"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Preparation</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Formulation"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Formulation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Flour"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Flour</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Liquids"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Liquids</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Leavening"><span class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">Leavening</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-9"><a href="#Chemical_leavening"><span class="tocnumber">4.4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Chemical leavening</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-10"><a href="#Yeast"><span class="tocnumber">4.4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Yeast</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-11"><a href="#Sourdough"><span class="tocnumber">4.4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Sourdough</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-12"><a href="#Steam"><span class="tocnumber">4.4.4</span> <span class="toctext">Steam</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-13"><a href="#Bacteria"><span class="tocnumber">4.4.5</span> <span class="toctext">Bacteria</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-14"><a href="#Aeration"><span class="tocnumber">4.4.6</span> <span class="toctext">Aeration</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Fats_or_shortenings"><span class="tocnumber">4.5</span> <span class="toctext">Fats or shortenings</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Bread_improvers"><span class="tocnumber">4.6</span> <span class="toctext">Bread improvers</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a href="#Properties"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Properties</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Chemical_composition"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Chemical composition</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Serving_and_consumption"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Serving and consumption</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Nutritional_significance"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Nutritional significance</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Shelf_life"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">Shelf life</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Crust"><span class="tocnumber">5.5</span> <span class="toctext">Crust</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-23"><a href="#Cultural_significance"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Cultural significance</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Asia"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Asia</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a href="#Europe"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Europe</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Latin_America"><span class="tocnumber">6.3</span> <span class="toctext">Latin America</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#North_Africa"><span class="tocnumber">6.4</span> <span class="toctext">North Africa</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#North_America"><span class="tocnumber">6.5</span> <span class="toctext">North America</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29"><a href="#Religious_significance"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Religious significance</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-30"><a href="#Abrahamic_religions"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Abrahamic religions</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-31"><a href="#Paganism"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">Paganism</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-32"><a href="#Anti-bread_movements"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Anti-bread movements</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-33"><a href="#In_medicine"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">In medicine</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-34"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-35"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-36"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-37"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<p></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span></h2>
<p>The word itself, <a href="/wiki/Old_English_language" title="Old English language" class="mw-redirect">Old English</a> <i>bread</i>, is most common in various forms to many <a href="/wiki/Germanic_language" title="Germanic language" class="mw-redirect">Germanic languages</a>, such as <a href="/wiki/West_Frisian_language" title="West Frisian language">Frisian</a> <i>brea</i>, <a href="/wiki/Dutch_language" title="Dutch language">Dutch</a> <i>brood</i>, <a href="/wiki/German_language" title="German language">German</a> <i>Brot</i>, <a href="/wiki/Swedish_(language)" title="Swedish (language)" class="mw-redirect">Swedish</a> <i>bröd</i>, and <a href="/wiki/Norwegian_language" title="Norwegian language">Norwegian</a> and <a href="/wiki/Danish_language" title="Danish language">Danish</a> <i>brød</i>; it has been claimed to be derived from the root of <i><a href="/wiki/Brewing" title="Brewing">brew</a></i>. It may be connected with the root of <i>break</i>, for its early uses are confined to <i>broken pieces</i> or <i>bits</i> of bread, the <a href="/wiki/Latin" title="Latin">Latin</a> <i>crustum</i>, and it was not until the 12th century that it took the place—as the generic name for bread—of <i>hlaf</i> (<i>hlaifs</i> in <a href="/wiki/Gothic_language" title="Gothic language">Gothic</a>: modern English <i>loaf</i>), which appears to be the oldest <a href="/wiki/Germanic_languages" title="Germanic languages">Teutonic</a> name.<sup id="cite_ref-etym_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-etym-1"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Old_High_German" title="Old High German">Old High German</a> <i>hleib</i><sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> and modern <a href="/wiki/German_language" title="German language">German</a> <i>Laib</i> derive from this <a href="/wiki/Proto-Germanic" title="Proto-Germanic" class="mw-redirect">Proto-Germanic</a> word for "loaf", which was borrowed into Slavic (<a href="/wiki/Polish_language" title="Polish language">Polish</a> <i>chleb</i>, <a href="/wiki/Russian_language" title="Russian language">Russian</a> <i>khleb</i>) and Finnic (<a href="/wiki/Finnish_(language)" title="Finnish (language)" class="mw-redirect">Finnish</a> <i>leipä</i>, <a href="/wiki/Estonian_language" title="Estonian language">Estonian</a> <i>leib</i>) languages as well.</p>
<p>In many cultures, bread is a <a href="/wiki/Metaphor" title="Metaphor">metaphor</a> for basic necessities and living conditions in general. For example, a "bread-winner" is a household's main economic contributor and has little to do with actual bread-provision. This is also seen in the phrase "putting bread on the table". The Roman poet <a href="/wiki/Juvenal" title="Juvenal">Juvenal</a> satirized superficial politicians and the public as caring only for "<i>panem et circenses</i>" (<a href="/wiki/Bread_and_circuses" title="Bread and circuses">bread and circuses</a>). In <a href="/wiki/Russian_Soviet_Federative_Socialist_Republic" title="Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic">Russia</a> in 1917, the Bolsheviks promised "peace, land, and bread."<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup> The term "<a href="/wiki/Breadbasket" title="Breadbasket">breadbasket</a>" denotes an agriculturally productive region. In <a href="/wiki/Slavic_peoples" title="Slavic peoples" class="mw-redirect">Slavic</a> cultures <a href="/wiki/Bread_and_salt" title="Bread and salt">bread and salt</a> is offered as a welcome to guests. In <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>, life's basic necessities are often referred to as "roti, kapra aur makan" (bread, cloth, and house). In <a href="/wiki/Israel" title="Israel">Israel</a>, the most usual phrase in work-related demonstrations is <i>lekhem, avoda</i> ("bread, work").</p>
<p>The word <i>bread</i> is commonly used around the world in <a href="/wiki/English_language" title="English language">English</a>-speaking countries as a <a href="/wiki/Synonym" title="Synonym">synonym</a> for <a href="/wiki/Money" title="Money">money</a><sup id="cite_ref-etym_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-etym-1"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> (as is the case with the word "<a href="/wiki/Dough" title="Dough">dough</a>"). A remarkable or revolutionary innovation is often referred to in North America and the United Kingdom as "<a href="/wiki/Sliced_bread" title="Sliced bread">the greatest thing since sliced bread</a>" or "the best thing since sliced bread". In <a href="/wiki/Rhyming_slang" title="Rhyming slang">Cockney rhyming slang</a>, <i>bread</i> means money; this usage is derived from the phrase "bread and honey".<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
<div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/History_of_bread" title="History of bread">History of bread</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:252px;"><a href="/wiki/File:7-alimenti,pane,Taccuino_Sanitatis,_Casanatense_4182..jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/7-alimenti%2Cpane%2CTaccuino_Sanitatis%2C_Casanatense_4182..jpg/250px-7-alimenti%2Cpane%2CTaccuino_Sanitatis%2C_Casanatense_4182..jpg" width="250" height="269" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/7-alimenti%2Cpane%2CTaccuino_Sanitatis%2C_Casanatense_4182..jpg/375px-7-alimenti%2Cpane%2CTaccuino_Sanitatis%2C_Casanatense_4182..jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/7-alimenti%2Cpane%2CTaccuino_Sanitatis%2C_Casanatense_4182..jpg/500px-7-alimenti%2Cpane%2CTaccuino_Sanitatis%2C_Casanatense_4182..jpg 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="1075" /></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:7-alimenti,pane,Taccuino_Sanitatis,_Casanatense_4182..jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
Bread shop, <i><a href="/wiki/Tacuinum_Sanitatis" title="Tacuinum Sanitatis">Tacuinum Sanitatis</a></i> from Northern Italy, beginning of the 15th century</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the <a href="/wiki/Neolithic" title="Neolithic">Neolithic</a> age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including the surface of <a href="/wiki/Cereal" title="Cereal">cereal grains</a>, so any dough left to rest will become naturally leavened.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>There were multiple sources of <a href="/wiki/Leavening" title="Leavening" class="mw-redirect">leavening</a> available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. <a href="/wiki/Pliny_the_Elder" title="Pliny the Elder">Pliny the Elder</a> reported that the <a href="/wiki/Gauls" title="Gauls">Gauls</a> and <a href="/wiki/Iberians" title="Iberians">Iberians</a> used the foam skimmed from <a href="/wiki/Beer" title="Beer">beer</a> to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples." Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of <a href="/wiki/Grape" title="Grape">grape</a> juice and flour that was allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped in <a href="/wiki/Wine" title="Wine">wine</a>, as a source for <a href="/wiki/Yeast" title="Yeast">yeast</a>. The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough <a href="/wiki/Bread_starter" title="Bread starter" class="mw-redirect">starter</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In 1961 the <a href="/wiki/Chorleywood_bread_process" title="Chorleywood bread process">Chorleywood bread process</a> was developed, which used the intense mechanical working of dough to dramatically reduce the <a href="/wiki/Fermentation_(food)" title="Fermentation (food)" class="mw-redirect">fermentation</a> period and the time taken to produce a loaf. The process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of lower protein grain, is now widely used around the world in large factories. As a result, bread can be produced very quickly and at low costs to the manufacturer and the consumer. However, there has been some criticism of the effect on nutritional value.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Recently, domestic <a href="/wiki/Bread_machine" title="Bread machine">bread machines</a> that automate the process of making bread have become popular.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Types">Types</span></h2>
<div class="hatnote">See also: <a href="/wiki/List_of_breads" title="List of breads">List of breads</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Breadindia.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/Breadindia.jpg/220px-Breadindia.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/Breadindia.jpg/330px-Breadindia.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/Breadindia.jpg/440px-Breadindia.jpg 2x" data-file-width="640" data-file-height="480" /></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Breadindia.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>
White bread (left) and brown bread.</div>
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</div>
<p>Bread is the staple <a href="/wiki/Food" title="Food">food</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Middle_East" title="Middle East">Middle East</a>, <a href="/wiki/North_Africa" title="North Africa">North Africa</a>, <a href="/wiki/Europe" title="Europe">Europe</a>, and in European-derived cultures such as those in the <a href="/wiki/Americas" title="Americas">Americas</a>, <a href="/wiki/Australia" title="Australia">Australia</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Southern_Africa" title="Southern Africa">Southern Africa</a>, in contrast to East Asia where <a href="/wiki/Rice" title="Rice">rice</a> is the staple. Bread is usually made from a <a href="/wiki/Wheat" title="Wheat">wheat</a>-<a href="/wiki/Flour" title="Flour">flour</a> <a href="/wiki/Dough" title="Dough">dough</a> that is cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, and finally baked in an <a href="/wiki/Oven" title="Oven">oven</a>. Owing to its high levels of <a href="/wiki/Gluten" title="Gluten">gluten</a> (which give the dough sponginess and elasticity), <a href="/wiki/Common_wheat" title="Common wheat">common wheat</a> (also known as bread wheat) is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread.</p>
<p>Bread is also made from the flour of other wheat species (including <a href="/wiki/Durum" title="Durum">durum</a>, <a href="/wiki/Spelt" title="Spelt">spelt</a> and <a href="/wiki/Emmer" title="Emmer">emmer</a>), <a href="/wiki/Rye" title="Rye">rye</a>, <a href="/wiki/Barley" title="Barley">barley</a>, <a href="/wiki/Maize" title="Maize">maize</a> (corn), and <a href="/wiki/Oat" title="Oat">oats</a>, usually, but not always, in combination with wheat flour. Spelt bread (Dinkelbrot) continues to be widely consumed in Germany, and emmer bread was a staple food in ancient Egypt. <a href="/wiki/Canadian_White" title="Canadian White" class="mw-redirect">Canadian bread</a> is known for its heartier consistency due to high protein levels in Canadian flour.</p>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pita" title="Pita">Pita</a> is an ancient semi-leavened bread widespread in the Middle East, Levant and South Eastern Europe.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/White_bread" title="White bread">White bread</a> is made from <a href="/wiki/Flour" title="Flour">flour</a> containing only the central core of the grain (endosperm).</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brown_bread" title="Brown bread">Brown bread</a> is made with endosperm and 10% bran. It can also refer to white bread with added coloring (often caramel) to make it brown; this is commonly labeled in America as wheat bread (as opposed to <a href="/wiki/Whole-wheat_bread" title="Whole-wheat bread" class="mw-redirect">whole-wheat bread</a>).<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wholemeal_bread" title="Wholemeal bread" class="mw-redirect">Wholemeal bread</a> contains the whole of the wheat grain (endosperm, bran, and germ). It is also referred to as "whole-grain" or "whole-wheat bread", especially in <a href="/wiki/North_America" title="North America">North America</a>.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cereal_germ" title="Cereal germ">Wheat germ</a> bread has added wheat germ for flavoring.</li>
<li>Whole-grain bread can refer to the same as wholemeal bread, or to white bread with added whole grains to increase its fibre content, as in "60% whole-grain bread".</li>
</ul>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:French_Boule_Bread.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/French_Boule_Bread.jpg/220px-French_Boule_Bread.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/French_Boule_Bread.jpg/330px-French_Boule_Bread.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/French_Boule_Bread.jpg/440px-French_Boule_Bread.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4032" data-file-height="3024" /></a>
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Classic French bread, boule.</div>
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<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Roti" title="Roti">Roti</a> is a whole-wheat-based bread eaten in South Asia. <a href="/wiki/Chapatti" title="Chapatti" class="mw-redirect">Chapatti</a> is a type of roti. <a href="/wiki/Naan" title="Naan">Naan</a> is a leavened equivalent to these.</li>
<li>Granary bread (a registered trademark, owned by <a href="/wiki/Rank_Hovis" title="Rank Hovis" class="mw-redirect">Rank Hovis</a><sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup>) is made from flaked wheat grains and white or brown flour. The standard malting process is modified to maximise the maltose or sugar content but minimise residual alpha amylase content. Other flavor components are imparted from partial fermentation due to the particular malting process used and to <a href="/wiki/Maillard_reaction" title="Maillard reaction">Maillard reactions</a> on flaking and toasting.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rye_bread" title="Rye bread">Rye bread</a> is made with flour from rye grain of varying levels. It is higher in fiber than many common types of bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor. It is popular in <a href="/wiki/Scandinavia" title="Scandinavia">Scandinavia</a>, Germany, <a href="/wiki/Finland" title="Finland">Finland</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Baltic_States" title="Baltic States" class="mw-redirect">Baltic States</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Russia" title="Russia">Russia</a>.</li>
<li>Unleavened bread or <a href="/wiki/Matzo" title="Matzo">matzo</a>, used for the <a href="/wiki/Jewish" title="Jewish" class="mw-redirect">Jewish</a> feast of <a href="/wiki/Passover" title="Passover">Passover</a>, does not include yeast, so it does not rise.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sourdough_bread" title="Sourdough bread" class="mw-redirect">Sourdough bread</a> is made with a <a href="/wiki/Bread_starter" title="Bread starter" class="mw-redirect">starter</a>.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flatbread" title="Flatbread">Flatbread</a> is often simple, made with flour, water, and salt, and then formed into flattened dough; most are unleavened, made without yeast or sourdough culture, though some are made with yeast.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Crisp_bread" title="Crisp bread" class="mw-redirect">Crisp bread</a> is a flat and dry type of bread or <a href="/wiki/Cracker_(food)" title="Cracker (food)">cracker</a>, containing mostly <a href="/wiki/Rye" title="Rye">rye</a> flour.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hemp" title="Hemp">Hemp</a> bread includes strongly flavored hemp flour or seeds. Hemp has been used for thousands of years in <a href="/wiki/Traditional_Chinese_medicine" title="Traditional Chinese medicine">traditional Chinese medicine</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup> Hemp flour is the by-product from pressing the oil from the seeds and milling the residue. It is perishable and stores best in the freezer. Hemp dough won't rise due to its lack of gluten, and for that reason it is best mixed with other flours. A 5:1 ratio of wheat-to-hemp flour produces a hearty, nutritious loaf high in protein and <a href="/wiki/Essential_fatty_acid" title="Essential fatty acid">essential fatty acids</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup> Hemp seeds have a relatively high oil content of 25–35%, and can be added at a rate up to 15% of the wheat flour. The <a href="/wiki/Hemp_oil" title="Hemp oil">oil's</a> <a href="/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid#The_omega-6_to_omega-3_ratio" title="Omega-3 fatty acid">omega-6-to-omega-3 ratio</a> lies in the range of 2:1-to-3:1, which is considered ideal for human nutrition.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quick_breads" title="Quick breads" class="mw-redirect">Quick breads</a> usually refers to a bread chemically leavened, usually with both baking powder and baking soda, and a balance of acidic ingredients and alkaline ingredients. Examples include <a href="/wiki/Pancake" title="Pancake">pancakes</a> and <a href="/wiki/Waffle" title="Waffle">waffles</a>, <a href="/wiki/Muffin" title="Muffin">muffins</a> and <a href="/wiki/Carrot_cake" title="Carrot cake">carrot cake</a>, <a href="/wiki/Brown_bread" title="Brown bread">Boston brown bread</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Zucchini" title="Zucchini">zucchini</a> and <a href="/wiki/Banana_bread" title="Banana bread">banana bread</a>.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gluten-free_diet#Gluten-free_bread" title="Gluten-free diet">Gluten-free breads</a> have been created in recent years due to the discovery that <a href="/wiki/Celiac_disease" title="Celiac disease" class="mw-redirect">celiac disease</a> sufferers benefit from a <a href="/wiki/Gluten-free_diet" title="Gluten-free diet">gluten-free diet</a>. Gluten-free bread is made with ground flours from a variety of materials such as almonds, rice (rice bread), sorghum (sorghum bread), corn (cornbread), or legumes such as beans (bean bread), but since these flours lack gluten it can be difficult for them to retain their shape as they rise and they may be less "fluffy". Additives such as xanthum gum, guar gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), corn starch, or eggs are used to compensate for the lack of gluten.</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Preparation">Preparation</span></h2>
<p><span id="Composition_and_chemistry"></span><span id="Chemistry_and_composition"></span></p>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:A_Seaman_of_Fort_Worth_prepares_dinner_rolls_in_the_Bake_Shop.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/A_Seaman_of_Fort_Worth_prepares_dinner_rolls_in_the_Bake_Shop.jpg/220px-A_Seaman_of_Fort_Worth_prepares_dinner_rolls_in_the_Bake_Shop.jpg" width="220" height="156" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/A_Seaman_of_Fort_Worth_prepares_dinner_rolls_in_the_Bake_Shop.jpg/330px-A_Seaman_of_Fort_Worth_prepares_dinner_rolls_in_the_Bake_Shop.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/A_Seaman_of_Fort_Worth_prepares_dinner_rolls_in_the_Bake_Shop.jpg/440px-A_Seaman_of_Fort_Worth_prepares_dinner_rolls_in_the_Bake_Shop.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2100" data-file-height="1486" /></a>
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A baker prepares yeasted dinner rolls.</div>
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<p>Doughs are usually <a href="/wiki/Baked" title="Baked" class="mw-redirect">baked</a>, but in some cuisines breads are <a href="/wiki/Steamed_bread" title="Steamed bread">steamed</a> (e.g., <a href="/wiki/Mantou" title="Mantou">mantou</a>), fried (e.g., <a href="/wiki/Puri_(food)" title="Puri (food)">puri</a>), or baked on an unoiled <a href="/wiki/Frying_pan" title="Frying pan">frying pan</a> (e.g., <a href="/wiki/Tortilla" title="Tortilla">tortillas</a>). It may be <a href="/wiki/Leavening_agent" title="Leavening agent">leavened</a> or unleavened (e.g. <a href="/wiki/Matzo" title="Matzo">matzo</a>). <a href="/wiki/Edible_salt" title="Edible salt" class="mw-redirect">Salt</a>, <a href="/wiki/Fat" title="Fat">fat</a> and <a href="/wiki/Leavening_agent" title="Leavening agent">leavening agents</a> such as <a href="/wiki/Yeast_(baking)" title="Yeast (baking)" class="mw-redirect">yeast</a> and <a href="/wiki/Baking_soda" title="Baking soda" class="mw-redirect">baking soda</a> are common ingredients, though bread may contain other ingredients, such as <a href="/wiki/Milk" title="Milk">milk</a>, <a href="/wiki/Egg_(food)" title="Egg (food)">egg</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sugar" title="Sugar">sugar</a>, <a href="/wiki/Spice" title="Spice">spice</a>, <a href="/wiki/Fruit" title="Fruit">fruit</a> (such as <a href="/wiki/Raisin" title="Raisin">raisins</a>), <a href="/wiki/Vegetable" title="Vegetable">vegetables</a> (such as <a href="/wiki/Onion" title="Onion">onion</a>), <a href="/wiki/Nut_(fruit)" title="Nut (fruit)">nuts</a> (such as <a href="/wiki/Walnut" title="Walnut">walnuts</a>) or <a href="/wiki/Seed" title="Seed">seeds</a> (such as <a href="/wiki/Poppy_seed" title="Poppy seed">poppy</a>). Referred to colloquially as the "staff of life", bread has been prepared for at least 30,000 years. The development of leavened bread can probably also be traced to prehistoric times. Sometimes, the word <i>bread</i> refers to a sweetened loaf cake, often containing appealing ingredients like <a href="/wiki/Dried_fruit" title="Dried fruit">dried fruit</a>, <a href="/wiki/Chocolate_chips" title="Chocolate chips" class="mw-redirect">chocolate chips</a>, nuts or spices, such as <a href="/wiki/Pumpkin_bread" title="Pumpkin bread">pumpkin bread</a>, <a href="/wiki/Banana_bread" title="Banana bread">banana bread</a> or <a href="/wiki/Gingerbread" title="Gingerbread">gingerbread</a>.</p>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Tortillas_de_rescoldo.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Tortillas_de_rescoldo.jpg/220px-Tortillas_de_rescoldo.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Tortillas_de_rescoldo.jpg/330px-Tortillas_de_rescoldo.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Tortillas_de_rescoldo.jpg/440px-Tortillas_de_rescoldo.jpg 2x" data-file-width="4252" data-file-height="3194" /></a>
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Steps in bread making. This shows an unleavened Chilean tortilla.</div>
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<p>Fresh bread is prized for its taste, aroma, quality, appearance and texture. Retaining its freshness is important to keep it appetizing. Bread that has stiffened or dried past its prime is said to be <a href="/wiki/Staling" title="Staling">stale</a>. Modern bread is sometimes wrapped in <a href="/wiki/Paper" title="Paper">paper</a> or <a href="/wiki/Plastic" title="Plastic">plastic</a> film or stored in a container such as a <a href="/wiki/Breadbox" title="Breadbox">breadbox</a> to reduce drying. Bread that is kept in warm, moist environments is prone to the growth of <a href="/wiki/Mold" title="Mold">mold</a>. Bread kept at low temperatures, in a <a href="/wiki/Refrigerator" title="Refrigerator">refrigerator</a> for example, will develop mold growth more slowly than bread kept at room temperature, but will turn stale quickly due to <a href="/wiki/Retrogradation_(starch)" title="Retrogradation (starch)">retrogradation</a>.</p>
<p>The soft, inner part of bread is known to <a href="/wiki/Baker" title="Baker">bakers</a> and other <a href="/wiki/Culinary_professional" title="Culinary professional" class="mw-redirect">culinary professionals</a> as the <i>crumb</i>, which is not to be confused with small bits of bread that often fall off, called <i>crumbs</i>. The outer hard portion of bread is called the <i>crust</i>. The crumb's texture is greatly determined by the quality of the <a href="/wiki/Pores_(bread)" title="Pores (bread)" class="mw-redirect">pores</a> in the bread.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Formulation">Formulation</span></h3>
<p>Professional baker recipes are stated using a notation called <a href="/wiki/Baker_percentage" title="Baker percentage">baker's percentage</a>. The amount of flour is denoted to be 100%, and the amounts of the other ingredients are expressed as a percentage of that amount by weight. Measurement by weight is more accurate and consistent than measurement by volume, particularly for dry ingredients.</p>
<p>The proportion of water to flour is the most important measurement in a bread recipe, as it affects texture and crumb the most. Hard US wheat flours <a href="/wiki/Farinograph#Method" title="Farinograph">absorb</a> about 62% <a href="/wiki/Water" title="Water">water</a>, while softer wheat flours absorb about 56%.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> Common table breads made from these doughs result in a finely textured, light bread. Most artisan bread formulas contain anywhere from 60 to 75% water. In yeast breads, the higher water percentages result in more CO<sub>2</sub> bubbles and a coarser bread crumb. One pound (450 <a href="/wiki/Gramme" title="Gramme" class="mw-redirect">g</a>) of flour will yield a standard loaf of bread or two French loaves.</p>
<p><a href="/wiki/Calcium_propionate" title="Calcium propionate" class="mw-redirect">Calcium propionate</a> is commonly added by commercial bakeries to retard the growth of molds.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Flour">Flour</span></h3>
<div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Flour" title="Flour">Flour</a></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Flour" title="Flour">Flour</a> is a product made from grain that has been ground to a powdery consistency. Flour provides the primary structure to the final baked bread. While wheat flour is most commonly used for breads, flours made from rye, barley, maize, and other grains are also commonly available. Each of these grains provides the starch and protein needed to form bread.</p>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Protein" title="Protein">protein</a> content of the flour is the best indicator of the quality of the bread <a href="/wiki/Dough" title="Dough">dough</a> and the finished bread. While bread can be made from all-purpose wheat flour, a specialty bread flour, containing more protein (12–14%), is recommended for high-quality bread. If one uses a flour with a lower protein content (9–11%) to produce bread, a shorter mixing time will be required to develop gluten strength properly. An extended mixing time leads to oxidization of the dough, which gives the finished product a whiter crumb, instead of the cream color preferred by most artisan bakers.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Wheat flour, in addition to its starch, contains three water-soluble protein groups (<a href="/wiki/Albumin" title="Albumin">albumin</a>, <a href="/wiki/Globulin" title="Globulin">globulin</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Proteose" title="Proteose">proteoses</a>) and two water-insoluble protein groups (<a href="/wiki/Glutenin" title="Glutenin">glutenin</a> and <a href="/wiki/Gliadin" title="Gliadin">gliadin</a>). When flour is mixed with water, the water-soluble proteins dissolve, leaving the glutenin and gliadin to form the structure of the resulting bread. When relatively dry dough is worked by <a href="/wiki/Kneading" title="Kneading">kneading</a>, or wet dough is allowed to rise for a long time (see <a href="/wiki/No-knead_bread" title="No-knead bread">no-knead bread</a>), the glutenin forms strands of long, thin, chainlike molecules, while the shorter gliadin forms bridges between the strands of glutenin. The resulting networks of strands produced by these two proteins are known as <a href="/wiki/Gluten" title="Gluten">gluten</a>. Gluten development improves if the dough is allowed to <a href="/wiki/Autolyse" title="Autolyse" class="mw-redirect">autolyse</a>.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Liquids">Liquids</span></h3>
<p>Water, or some other liquid, is used to form the flour into a paste or dough. The weight of liquid required varies between recipes, but a ratio of 3 parts liquid to 5 parts flour is common for yeast breads.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup> Recipes that use steam as the primary leavening method may have a liquid content in excess of 1 part liquid to 1 part flour. Instead of water, other types of liquids, such as dairy products, fruit juices, or beer, may be used; they contribute additional sweeteners, fats, or leavening components, as well as water.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Leavening">Leavening</span></h3>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Aberdour_Castle_-_Dough_Trough.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Aberdour_Castle_-_Dough_Trough.jpg/220px-Aberdour_Castle_-_Dough_Trough.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Aberdour_Castle_-_Dough_Trough.jpg/330px-Aberdour_Castle_-_Dough_Trough.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Aberdour_Castle_-_Dough_Trough.jpg/440px-Aberdour_Castle_-_Dough_Trough.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2288" data-file-height="1712" /></a>
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A dough trough once used for leavening bread from Aberdour Castle, Fife, Scotland.</div>
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<p><a href="/wiki/Leavening" title="Leavening" class="mw-redirect">Leavening</a> is the process of adding gas to a dough before or during baking to produce a lighter, more easily chewed bread. Most bread consumed in the West is leavened. Unleavened breads have symbolic importance in <a href="/wiki/Judaism" title="Judaism">Judaism</a> and <a href="/wiki/Christianity" title="Christianity">Christianity</a>: Jews consume unleavened bread called <a href="/wiki/Matzo" title="Matzo">matzo</a> during <a href="/wiki/Passover" title="Passover">Passover</a>, and Roman Catholic and some Protestant Christians consume unleavened <a href="/wiki/Sacramental_bread" title="Sacramental bread">sacramental bread</a> when celebrating the <a href="/wiki/Eucharist" title="Eucharist">Eucharist</a>, a rite derived from the narrative of the <a href="/wiki/Last_Supper" title="Last Supper">Last Supper</a> when <a href="/wiki/Jesus" title="Jesus">Jesus</a> broke bread with his disciples, perhaps during a <a href="/wiki/Passover_Seder" title="Passover Seder">Passover Seder</a>. In contrast, <a href="/wiki/Orthodox_Christian" title="Orthodox Christian" class="mw-redirect">Orthodox Christians</a> always use leavened bread during their liturgy.</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Chemical_leavening">Chemical leavening</span></h4>
<p>A simple technique for leavening bread is the use of gas-producing chemicals. There are two common methods. The first is to use <a href="/wiki/Baking_powder" title="Baking powder">baking powder</a> or a <a href="/wiki/Self-rising_flour" title="Self-rising flour" class="mw-redirect">self-rising flour</a> that includes baking powder. The second is to include an acidic ingredient such as <a href="/wiki/Buttermilk" title="Buttermilk">buttermilk</a> and add <a href="/wiki/Baking_soda" title="Baking soda" class="mw-redirect">baking soda</a>; the reaction of the acid with the soda produces gas.</p>
<p>Chemically leavened breads are called <i><a href="/wiki/Quick_bread" title="Quick bread">quick breads</a></i> and <i><a href="/wiki/Soda_bread" title="Soda bread">soda breads</a></i>. This method is commonly used to make <a href="/wiki/Muffin" title="Muffin">muffins</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pancake" title="Pancake">pancakes</a>, American-style <a href="/wiki/Biscuits" title="Biscuits" class="mw-redirect">biscuits</a>, and quick breads such as <a href="/wiki/Banana_bread" title="Banana bread">banana bread</a>.</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Yeast">Yeast</span></h4>
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<td class="mbox-text"><span class="mbox-text-span">This section <b>does not <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">cite</a> any <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">references (sources)</a></b>. <span class="hide-when-compact">Please help improve this section by <a href="/wiki/Help:Introduction_to_referencing/1" title="Help:Introduction to referencing/1" class="mw-redirect">adding citations to reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be challenged and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>.</span> <small><i>(June 2015)</i></small></span></td>
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<div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Baker%27s_yeast" title="Baker's yeast">Baker's yeast</a></div>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Compressed_fresh_yeast_-_1.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Compressed_fresh_yeast_-_1.jpg/220px-Compressed_fresh_yeast_-_1.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Compressed_fresh_yeast_-_1.jpg/330px-Compressed_fresh_yeast_-_1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Compressed_fresh_yeast_-_1.jpg/440px-Compressed_fresh_yeast_-_1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2000" data-file-height="1330" /></a>
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A block of compressed fresh yeast in its wrapper</div>
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<p>Many breads are leavened by <a href="/wiki/Yeast" title="Yeast">yeast</a>. The yeast most commonly used for leavening bread is <i><a href="/wiki/Saccharomyces_cerevisiae" title="Saccharomyces cerevisiae">Saccharomyces cerevisiae</a></i>, the same species used for brewing alcoholic beverages. This yeast ferments some of the <a href="/wiki/Carbohydrate" title="Carbohydrate">carbohydrates</a> in the flour, including any <a href="/wiki/Sugar" title="Sugar">sugar</a>, producing <a href="/wiki/Carbon_dioxide" title="Carbon dioxide">carbon dioxide</a>. Most bakers in the U.S. leaven their dough with commercially produced <a href="/wiki/Baker%27s_yeast" title="Baker's yeast">baker's yeast</a>. Baker's yeast has the advantage of producing uniform, quick, and reliable results, because it is obtained from a <a href="/wiki/Pure_culture" title="Pure culture" class="mw-redirect">pure culture</a>. Many artisan bakers produce their own yeast by preparing a growth culture that they then use in the making of bread. When this culture is kept in the right conditions, it will continue to grow and provide leavening for many years.</p>
<p>Both the baker's yeast and the sourdough methods of baking bread follow the same pattern. Water is mixed with flour, salt and the leavening agent (baker's yeast or <a href="/wiki/Sourdough" title="Sourdough">sourdough</a> starter). Other additions (spices, herbs, fats, seeds, fruit, etc.) are not needed to bake bread, but are often used. The mixed dough is then allowed to <a href="/wiki/Proofing_(baking_technique)" title="Proofing (baking technique)">rise</a> one or more times (a longer rising time results in more flavor, so bakers often "punch down" the dough and let it rise again), then loaves are formed, and (after an optional final rising time) the bread is baked in an <a href="/wiki/Oven" title="Oven">oven</a>.</p>
<p>Many breads are made from a "<a href="/wiki/Straight_dough" title="Straight dough">straight dough</a>", which means that all of the ingredients are combined in one step, and the dough is baked after the rising time; others are made from a "<a href="/wiki/Pre-ferment" title="Pre-ferment">pre-ferment</a>" in which the leavening agent is combined with some of the flour and water a day or so ahead of baking and allowed to ferment overnight. On the day of the baking, the rest of the ingredients are added, and process continues as with straight dough. This produces a more flavorful bread with better texture.</p>
<p>Many bakers see the starter method as a compromise between the highly reliable results of baker's yeast and the flavor and complexity of a longer fermentation. It also allows the baker to use only a minimal amount of baker's yeast, which was scarce and expensive when it first became available. Most yeasted pre-ferments fall into one of three categories: "<a href="/wiki/Poolish" title="Poolish" class="mw-redirect">poolish</a>" or "pouliche", a loose-textured mixture composed of roughly equal amounts of flour and water (by weight); "<a href="/wiki/Biga_(bread_baking)" title="Biga (bread baking)">biga</a>", a stiff mixture with a higher proportion of flour; and "pâte fermentée", which is simply a portion of dough reserved from a previous batch. Sourdough (also known as "levain" or "natural leaven") takes the pre-ferment method a step further, mixing flour and water to allow naturally occurring yeast and bacteria to propagate (usually <i>Saccharomyces exiguus</i>, which is more acid-tolerant than <i>S. cerevisiae</i> and various species of <i><a href="/wiki/Lactobacillus" title="Lactobacillus">Lactobacillus</a></i>).</p>
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<td><a href="/wiki/File:Breaddough1.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Breaddough1.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Breaddough1.jpg/208px-Breaddough1.jpg" width="208" height="200" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Breaddough1.jpg/312px-Breaddough1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Breaddough1.jpg/416px-Breaddough1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="566" data-file-height="545" /></a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Breaddough2.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Breaddough2.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Breaddough2.jpg/200px-Breaddough2.jpg" width="200" height="200" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Breaddough2.jpg/300px-Breaddough2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Breaddough2.jpg/400px-Breaddough2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1942" data-file-height="1944" /></a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Risen_bread_dough_in_tin.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Risen bread dough in tin.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a8/Risen_bread_dough_in_tin.jpg/320px-Risen_bread_dough_in_tin.jpg" width="320" height="200" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a8/Risen_bread_dough_in_tin.jpg/480px-Risen_bread_dough_in_tin.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a8/Risen_bread_dough_in_tin.jpg/640px-Risen_bread_dough_in_tin.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1752" data-file-height="1094" /></a></td>
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<td>Dough before first rising.</td>
<td>Dough after first rising.</td>
<td>Dough after <a href="/wiki/Proofing_(baking_technique)" title="Proofing (baking technique)">proofing</a> in tin, ready to bake.</td>
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<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Sourdough">Sourdough</span></h4>
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<td class="mbox-text"><span class="mbox-text-span">This section <b>does not <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">cite</a> any <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">references (sources)</a></b>. <span class="hide-when-compact">Please help improve this section by <a href="/wiki/Help:Introduction_to_referencing/1" title="Help:Introduction to referencing/1" class="mw-redirect">adding citations to reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be challenged and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>.</span> <small><i>(June 2015)</i></small></span></td>
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<div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Sourdough" title="Sourdough">Sourdough</a></div>
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<p>Sourdough is a type of bread produced by a long fermentation of dough using naturally occurring yeasts and lactobacilli. In comparison with breads made with cultivated yeast, it usually has a mildly sour taste because of the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli.</p>
<p>Sourdough breads are made with a sourdough starter (which differs from starters made with baker's yeast). The starter cultivates yeast and lactobacilli in a mixture of flour and water, making use of the microorganisms already present on flour; it does not need any added yeast. A starter may be maintained indefinitely by regular additions of flour and water. Some bakers have starters several generations old, which are said to have a special taste or texture. It is possible to obtain existing starter cultures to begin a new one.</p>
<p>At one time, all yeast-leavened breads were sourdoughs. The leavening process was not understood until the 19th century, when yeast was first identified. Since then, strains of Saccaromyces cerevisiae have been bred for their reliability and speed of leavening and sold as "baker's yeast". Baker's yeast was adopted for the simpicity and flexibility it introduced to bread making, obviating the lengthy cultivation of a sourdough starter. While sourdough breads survived in some parts of Europe, throughout most of the U.S., they were replaced by baker's yeast. Recently there has been a revival of sourdough bread in artisan bakeries.</p>
<p>There are other ways of sourdough baking and culture maintenance. A more traditional one is the process that was followed by peasant families throughout Europe in past centuries. The family (usually the woman was in charge of breadmaking) would bake on a fixed schedule, perhaps once a week. The starter was saved from the previous week's dough. The starter was mixed with the new ingredients, the dough was left to rise, and then a piece of it was saved (to be the starter for next week's bread). The rest was formed into loaves that were marked with the family sign (this is where today's decorative slashing of bread loaves originates from) and taken to the communal oven to bake. These communal ovens with time evolved into the modern bakery.</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Steam">Steam</span></h4>
<p>The rapid expansion of steam produced during baking leavens the bread, which is as simple as it is unpredictable. The best known steam-leavened bread is the <a href="/wiki/Popover" title="Popover">popover</a>. Steam-leavening is unpredictable since the steam is not produced until the bread is baked.</p>
<p>Steam leavening happens regardless of the rising agents (baking soda, yeast, baking powder, sour dough, beaten egg whites, etc.).</p>
<ul>
<li>The leavening agent either contains air bubbles or generates carbon dioxide.</li>
<li>The heat vaporises the water from the inner surface of the bubbles within the dough.</li>
<li>The steam expands and makes the bread rise.</li>
</ul>
<p>This is the main factor in the rise of bread once it has been put in the oven.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Carbon_dioxide" title="Carbon dioxide">CO<sub>2</sub></a> generation, on its own, is too small to account for the rise. Heat kills bacteria or yeast at an early stage, so the CO<sub>2</sub> generation is stopped.</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Bacteria">Bacteria</span></h4>
<p><a href="/wiki/Salt-rising_bread" title="Salt-rising bread">Salt-rising bread</a> employs a form of bacterial leavening that does not require yeast. Although the leavening action is not always consistent, and requires close attention to the incubating conditions, this bread is making a comeback due to its unique cheese-like flavor and fine texture.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Aeration">Aeration</span></h4>
<p><a href="/wiki/Aerated_bread" title="Aerated bread" class="mw-redirect">Aerated bread</a> is leavened by carbon dioxide being forced into dough under pressure. From the mid 19th to 20th centuries bread made this way was somewhat popular in the United Kingdom, made by the <a href="/wiki/Aerated_Bread_Company" title="Aerated Bread Company">Aerated Bread Company</a> and sold in its high-street <a href="/wiki/Aerated_Bread_Company#Tea_shops_and_early_women.27s_issues" title="Aerated Bread Company">tearooms</a>. The company was founded in 1862, and ceased independent operations in 1955. While it had some devoted adherents, it never eclipsed the use of baker's yeast worldwide.</p>
<p>The Pressure-Vacuum mixer was later developed by the Flour Milling and Baking Research Association at Chorleywood. With the application of both pressure and vacuum at different points in the mixing process, this mixer not only manipulates the gas bubble size, it may also manipulate the composition of gases in the dough via the gas applied to the headspace.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Fats_or_shortenings">Fats or shortenings</span></h3>
<p>Fats, such as butter, vegetable oils, lard, or that contained in eggs, affect the development of gluten in breads by coating and lubricating the individual strands of protein. They also help to hold the structure together. If too much fat is included in a bread dough, the lubrication effect will cause the protein structures to divide. A fat content of approximately 3% by weight is the concentration that will produce the greatest leavening action.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup> In addition to their effects on leavening, fats also serve to tenderize breads and preserve freshness.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Bread_improvers">Bread improvers</span></h3>
<div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Bread_improver" title="Bread improver" class="mw-redirect">Bread improver</a></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Bread_improver" title="Bread improver" class="mw-redirect">Bread improvers</a> and <a href="/wiki/Dough_conditioner" title="Dough conditioner">dough conditioners</a> are often used in producing commercial breads to reduce the time needed for rising and to improve texture and volume. Chemical substances commonly used as bread improvers include <a href="/wiki/Ascorbic_acid" title="Ascorbic acid">ascorbic acid</a>, <a href="/wiki/Hydrochloride" title="Hydrochloride">hydrochloride</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sodium_metabisulfate" title="Sodium metabisulfate" class="mw-redirect">sodium metabisulfate</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ammonium_chloride" title="Ammonium chloride">ammonium chloride</a>, various <a href="/wiki/Phosphate" title="Phosphate">phosphates</a>, <a href="/wiki/Amylase" title="Amylase">amylase</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Protease" title="Protease">protease</a>.</p>
<p>Salt is one of the most common additives used in production. In addition to enhancing flavor and restricting yeast activity, salt affects the crumb and the overall texture by stabilizing and strengthening<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup> the gluten. Some artisan bakers are foregoing early addition of salt to the dough, and are waiting until after a 20-minute "rest". This is known as an <a href="/wiki/Autolyse" title="Autolyse" class="mw-redirect">autolyse</a><sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup> and is done with both refined and whole-grain flours.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Properties">Properties</span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Chemical_composition">Chemical composition</span></h3>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/Wheat" title="Wheat">wheat</a>, <a href="/wiki/Natural_phenol" title="Natural phenol" class="mw-redirect">phenolic</a> compounds are mainly found in <a href="/wiki/Hull_(botany)" title="Hull (botany)" class="mw-redirect">hulls</a> in the form of insoluble bound <a href="/wiki/Ferulic_acid" title="Ferulic acid">ferulic acid</a> where it is relevant to wheat resistance to fungal diseases.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p><a href="/wiki/Rye_bread" title="Rye bread">Rye bread</a> contains <a href="/wiki/Phenolic_acid" title="Phenolic acid">phenolic acids</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ferulic_acid_dehydrodimer" title="Ferulic acid dehydrodimer" class="mw-redirect">ferulic acid dehydrodimers</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Three <a href="/wiki/Natural_phenol" title="Natural phenol" class="mw-redirect">natural phenolic</a> glucosides, <a href="/wiki/Secoisolariciresinol_diglucoside" title="Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside">secoisolariciresinol diglucoside</a>, <a href="/wiki/P-coumaric_acid_glucoside" title="P-coumaric acid glucoside" class="mw-redirect">p-coumaric acid glucoside</a> and <a href="/w/index.php?title=Ferulic_acid_glucoside&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Ferulic acid glucoside (page does not exist)">ferulic acid glucoside</a>, can be found in commercial breads containing <a href="/wiki/Flaxseed" title="Flaxseed" class="mw-redirect">flaxseed</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Serving_and_consumption">Serving and consumption</span></h3>
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<p>Bread can be served at many <a href="/wiki/Temperature" title="Temperature">temperatures</a>; once baked, it can subsequently be <a href="/wiki/Toast" title="Toast">toasted</a>. It is most commonly eaten with the hands, either by itself or as a carrier for other foods. Bread can be dipped into liquids such as <a href="/wiki/Gravy" title="Gravy">gravy</a>, <a href="/wiki/Olive_oil" title="Olive oil">olive oil</a>, or <a href="/wiki/Soup" title="Soup">soup</a>; it can be topped with various sweet and savory spreads, or used to make <a href="/wiki/Sandwich" title="Sandwich">sandwiches</a> containing myriad varieties of <a href="/wiki/Meat" title="Meat">meats</a>, cheeses, vegetables, and <a href="/wiki/Condiments" title="Condiments" class="mw-redirect">condiments</a>.</p>
<p>Bread may also be used as an ingredient in other culinary preparations, such as the use of <a href="/wiki/Breadcrumb" title="Breadcrumb" class="mw-redirect">breadcrumbs</a> to provide crunchy crusts or thicken sauces, sweet or savoury <a href="/wiki/Bread_pudding" title="Bread pudding">bread puddings</a>, or as a binding agent in <a href="/wiki/Sausage" title="Sausage">sausages</a> and other ground meat products.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutritional_significance">Nutritional significance</span></h3>
<p>Nutritionally, bread is known as an ample source for the grains category of nutrition. Serving size of bread is standard through ounces, counting one slice of bread (white processed bread) as 1 oz. Also, bread is considered a good source of carbohydrates through the whole grains, nutrients such as magnesium, iron, selenium, B vitamins, and dietary fiber. As part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans,<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup> it is recommended to make at least half of the recommended total grain intake as whole grains and to overall increase whole grains intake.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Shelf_life">Shelf life</span></h3>
<p>In 2009, a natural preservative for extending the shelf life of bread for up to two weeks (as opposed to a few days) had been patented and licensed to Puratos, a Belgium-based baking ingredients company that supplies to more than 100 countries. The breakthrough was pioneered by Prof Elke Arendt at the University College Cork (UCC) by incorporating into the bread a lactic acid bacteria strain which also "produces a fine crumb texture" and "improves the flavour, volume and nutritional value of the food as well." Prior to this, "About 20% of all bread is thrown out due to shelf-life issues."<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Crust">Crust</span></h3>
<p>The bread crust is formed from surface dough during the cooking process. It is hardened and browned through the <a href="/wiki/Maillard_reaction" title="Maillard reaction">Maillard reaction</a> using the sugars and amino acids and the intense heat at the bread surface. The nature of a bread's crust differs depending on the type of bread and the way it is baked. Commercial bread is baked using jets that direct steam toward the bread to help produce a desirable crust.</p>
<p>The crust of most breads is less soft, and more complexly and intensely flavored, than the rest, and judgments vary among individuals and cultures as to whether it is therefore the less palatable or the more flavorful part of a particular style of bread. Some manufacturers, including as of September 2009<sup class="plainlinks noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bread&amp;action=edit">[update]</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Sara_Lee_(brand)" title="Sara Lee (brand)" class="mw-redirect">Sara Lee</a>, market traditional and <a href="/wiki/Crustless_bread" title="Crustless bread">crustless breads</a>.</p>
<p>The first and last slices of a loaf (or a slice with a high <a href="/wiki/Ratio" title="Ratio">ratio</a> of crust-area to volume compared to others of the same loaf) are sometimes referred to as the heel or the crust of the loaf.<sup id="cite_ref-dialect_survey_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-dialect_survey-29"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p><a href="/wiki/Old_wives_tale" title="Old wives tale" class="mw-redirect">Old wives tales</a> suggest that eating the bread crust makes a person's hair curlier. Additionally, the crust is rumored to be healthier than the rest. Some studies have shown that this is true as the crust has more <a href="/wiki/Dietary_fiber" title="Dietary fiber">dietary fiber</a> and <a href="/wiki/Antioxidants" title="Antioxidants" class="mw-redirect">antioxidants</a>, notably <a href="/w/index.php?title=Pronyl-lysine&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pronyl-lysine (page does not exist)">pronyl-lysine</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup> The <a href="/w/index.php?title=Pronyl-lysine&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Pronyl-lysine (page does not exist)">pronyl-lysine</a> found in bread crust is being researched for its potential <a href="/wiki/Colorectal_cancer" title="Colorectal cancer">colorectal cancer</a> inhibitory properties.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Cultural_significance">Cultural significance</span></h2>
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Dark <a href="/wiki/Sprouted_bread" title="Sprouted bread">sprouted bread</a></div>
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<p>Bread has a significance beyond mere nutrition in many cultures in the West and Near and Middle East because of its history and contemporary importance. Bread is also significant in Christianity as one of the elements (alongside <a href="/wiki/Wine" title="Wine">wine</a>) of the <a href="/wiki/Eucharist" title="Eucharist">Eucharist</a>; see <a href="/wiki/Sacramental_bread" title="Sacramental bread">sacramental bread</a>. The word <i>companion</i> comes from Latin <i>com-</i> "with" + <i>panis</i> "bread".<sup id="cite_ref-OnlineED_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OnlineED-34"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The political significance of bread is considerable. In 19th century Britain, the inflated price of bread due to the <a href="/wiki/Corn_Laws" title="Corn Laws">Corn Laws</a> caused major political and social divisions, and was central to debates over <a href="/wiki/Free_trade" title="Free trade">free trade</a> versus <a href="/wiki/Protectionism" title="Protectionism">protectionism</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2013)">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup> The <a href="/wiki/Assize_of_Bread_and_Ale" title="Assize of Bread and Ale">Assize of Bread and Ale</a> in the 13th century demonstrated the importance of bread in medieval times by setting heavy punishments for short-changing bakers, and bread appeared in the <i><a href="/wiki/Magna_Carta" title="Magna Carta">Magna Carta</a></i> a half-century earlier.</p>
<p>Like other foods, choosing the "right" kind of bread is used as a type of <a href="/w/index.php?title=Social_signalling&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Social signalling (page does not exist)">social signalling</a>, to let others know, for example, that the person buying expensive bread is financially secure, or the person buying whatever type of bread that the current fashions deem most healthful is a health-conscious consumer.<sup id="cite_ref-Copeland_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Copeland-35"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<blockquote class="toccolours" style="float:none; display:table;">
<div style="padding: 10px 15px 10px 15px;">... bread has become an article of food of the first necessity; and properly so, for it constitutes of itself a complete life-sustainer, the gluten, starch, and sugar, which it contains, represents azotised and hydro-carbonated nutrients, and combining the sustaining powers of the animal and vegetable kingdoms in one product. <a href="/wiki/Isabella_Beeton" title="Isabella Beeton">Mrs Beeton</a> (1861)<sup id="cite_ref-Beeton_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Beeton-36"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup></div>
</blockquote>
<p>As a simple, cheap, and adaptable type of food, bread is often used as a <a href="/wiki/Synecdoche" title="Synecdoche">synecdoche</a> for food in general in some languages and dialects, such as <a href="/wiki/Greek_language" title="Greek language">Greek</a> and <a href="/wiki/Punjabi_language" title="Punjabi language">Punjabi</a>. There are many variations on the basic recipe of bread worldwide, such as <a href="/wiki/Bagel" title="Bagel">bagels</a>, <a href="/wiki/Baguette" title="Baguette">baguettes</a>, <a href="/wiki/Biscuit" title="Biscuit">biscuits</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bocadillo" title="Bocadillo">bocadillo</a>, <a href="/wiki/Brioche" title="Brioche">brioche</a>, <a href="/wiki/Chapati" title="Chapati">chapatis</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lavash" title="Lavash">lavash</a>, <a href="/wiki/Naan" title="Naan">naan</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pita" title="Pita">pitas</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pizza" title="Pizza">pizza</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pretzel" title="Pretzel">pretzels</a>, <a href="/wiki/Puri_(food)" title="Puri (food)">puris</a>, <a href="/wiki/Tortilla" title="Tortilla">tortillas</a>, and many others. There are various types of traditional "cheese breads" in many countries, including <a href="/wiki/Brazil" title="Brazil">Brazil</a>, <a href="/wiki/Colombia" title="Colombia">Colombia</a>, <a href="/wiki/Italy" title="Italy">Italy</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Russia" title="Russia">Russia</a>.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Asia">Asia</span></h3>
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Mantou</div>
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<p>The traditional bread in <a href="/wiki/China" title="China">China</a> is <i><a href="/wiki/Mantou" title="Mantou">mantou</a></i>. It is made by steaming or deep-frying dough made from wheat flour. In Northern China and northern central China, <i>mantou</i> is often eaten as an alternative staple to rice. Steamed <i>mantou</i> is similar to Western white bread, but since it is not baked it does not have a brown outer crust. <i>Mantou</i> that have a filling such as meat or vegetables (<a href="/wiki/Cha_siu_bao" title="Cha siu bao">cha siu bao</a>, for example) are called <i><a href="/wiki/Baozi" title="Baozi">baozi</a></i>. The <a href="/wiki/Kompyang" title="Kompyang">kompyang</a> of <a href="/wiki/Fuzhou" title="Fuzhou">Fuzhou</a> is an example of a Chinese bread baked in a clay oven.</p>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/South_Asia" title="South Asia">South Asia</a> (including <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pakistan" title="Pakistan">Pakistan</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/Middle_East" title="Middle East">Middle East</a>), <i><a href="/wiki/Chapati" title="Chapati">chapati</a></i> or <i><a href="/wiki/Roti" title="Roti">roti</a></i>, types of unleavened flatbreads usually made from <a href="/wiki/Whole-wheat_flour" title="Whole-wheat flour">whole-wheat flour</a> or sometimes refined wheat flour and baked on a hot iron griddle called a <i>tava</i>, form the mainstay of the people's diet. The <a href="/wiki/Miracle_Chapati" title="Miracle Chapati">Miracle Chapati</a>, as it became known, is an unleavened bread with a long tradition. The bread can be spelled Chapathi, Chapati, Chapatti, or Chappati.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup> <i>Rotis</i> and <i>naans</i> are usually served with <a href="/wiki/Curry" title="Curry">curry</a> throughout the region. A variant called <i><a href="/wiki/Makki_di_roti" title="Makki di roti">makki di roti</a></i> uses <a href="/wiki/Maize" title="Maize">maize</a> flour rather than white flour. Another variant is <i><a href="/wiki/Puri_(food)" title="Puri (food)">puri</a></i>, a thin flat bread that is fried rather than baked and puffs up while cooked. <i><a href="/wiki/Paratha" title="Paratha">Paratha</a></i> is another variation on <i><a href="/wiki/Roti" title="Roti">roti</a></i>. <i><a href="/wiki/Naan" title="Naan">Naan</a></i> (leavened wholewheat bread) is baked in a <a href="/wiki/Tandoor" title="Tandoor">tandoor</a> or clay oven and is rarely prepared at home. White and brown breads are also very common, but not as common as <i><a href="/wiki/Roti" title="Roti">roti</a></i>.</p>
<p>In the <a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a>, <i><a href="/wiki/Pandesal" title="Pandesal">pandesal</a></i> (or <b>pan de sal</b>, meaning <i>bread of salt</i> or <i>salt bread</i>) is a rounded bread usually eaten by Filipinos during breakfast. The Philippines also produces a cheap generic white bread called <i>Pinoy Tasty</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Europe">Europe</span></h3>
<div class="hatnote relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Bread_in_Europe" title="Bread in Europe">Bread in Europe</a></div>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Frenchbread3000ppx.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/68/Frenchbread3000ppx.jpg/220px-Frenchbread3000ppx.jpg" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/68/Frenchbread3000ppx.jpg/330px-Frenchbread3000ppx.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/68/Frenchbread3000ppx.jpg/440px-Frenchbread3000ppx.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3872" data-file-height="2592" /></a>
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French bread</div>
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Arabian pita bread</div>
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<p>An enormous variety of bread is available across Europe. Germany lays claim to over 1300 basic varieties of breads, rolls, and pastries, as well as having the largest consumption of bread per capita worldwide, followed by <a href="/wiki/Chile" title="Chile">Chile</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Grazione_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Grazione-40"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FoddyChile_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FoddyChile-41"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Six_Servings_42-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Six_Servings-42"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Fundi2_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Fundi2-43"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Bread_and_salt" title="Bread and salt">Bread and salt</a> is a welcome greeting ceremony in many central and eastern European cultures. During important occasions when guests arrive, they are offered a loaf of bread with a salt holder to represent hospitality.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/France" title="France">France</a>, there has been a huge decline in the <a href="/wiki/Baguette" title="Baguette">baguette</a> culture. In the 1970s, French people were consuming an average of one loaf of bread per day. Only a century ago, the French ate approximately 3 loaves of bread per day. Today, French people eat only a half a loaf of bread per day. In response to this decline, bakers have created a national campaign to get people to call at the bakery before and after work just as they used to. The campaign models the American "Got Milk?" campaign, plastering "Hey there, have you picked up the bread?" all over billboards and bread bags.<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>There is a wide variety of traditional breads in <a href="/wiki/Great_Britain" title="Great Britain">Great Britain</a>, often baked in a rectangular tin. Round loaves are also produced, such as the <a href="/wiki/North_East_England" title="North East England">North East England</a> specialty called a <a href="/wiki/Stottie_cake" title="Stottie cake">stottie cake</a>. A cob is a small round loaf. A <a href="/wiki/Cottage_loaf" title="Cottage loaf">cottage loaf</a> is made of two balls of dough, one on top of the other, to form a figure-of-eight shape. There are many variations on bread rolls, such as <a href="/wiki/Bap_(bread)" title="Bap (bread)" class="mw-redirect">baps</a>, <a href="/wiki/Barm" title="Barm">barms</a>, <a href="/wiki/Breadcake" title="Breadcake" class="mw-redirect">breadcakes</a> and so on. The <a href="/wiki/Chorleywood_process" title="Chorleywood process" class="mw-redirect">Chorleywood process</a> for mass-producing bread was developed in England in the 1960s before spreading worldwide. Mass-produced sliced white bread brands such as <a href="/w/index.php?title=Wonderloaf&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Wonderloaf (page does not exist)">Wonderloaf</a> and <a href="/wiki/Mother%27s_Pride" title="Mother's Pride">Mother's Pride</a> have been criticized on grounds of poor nutritional value and taste of the loaves produced.<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/Spain" title="Spain">Spain</a>, bread is called <i>pan</i>. The traditional Spanish <i>pan</i> is a long loaf of bread, similar to the French baguette but wider. One can buy it freshly made every morning in the traditional bakeries, where there is a large assortment of bread. A smaller version is known as <a href="/wiki/Bocadillo" title="Bocadillo">bocadillo</a>, an iconic piece of the Hispanic cuisine. In Spain, especially in the Mediterranean area, there have been guilds of bakers for over 750 years. The bakers guild in Barcelona was founded in 1200 AD.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup> There is a region called Tierra del Pan ("Land of the Bread"), located in the province of <a href="/wiki/Zamora_(province)" title="Zamora (province)" class="mw-redirect">Zamora</a>, where economy was in the past joined to this activity.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Latin_America">Latin America</span></h3>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/Mexico" title="Mexico">Mexico</a>, bread is called <i>pan</i>. Although corn <a href="/wiki/Tortilla" title="Tortilla">tortillas</a> are the staple bread in most of Mexico, bread rolls in many varieties are an important daily food for city dwellers. Popular breads in Mexico include the <a href="/wiki/Bolillo" title="Bolillo">bolillo</a> roll and <i><a href="/wiki/Pan_dulce_(sweet_bread)" title="Pan dulce (sweet bread)" class="mw-redirect">pan dulce</a></i>. <i>Pan dulce</i>, which is Spanish for "sweet bread", is eaten in the evenings with hot drinks like traditional hot chocolate.</p>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a>, <i>pan</i> has many variations due to the diversity of Peruvian cuisine. People usually eat <i>pan de piso</i> and <i>pan serrano</i>. There are also some kinds of bread made of potatoes; these are currently popular in the Andes. <i>Bizcochos</i> are sweet bread usually eaten with some butter and <a href="/wiki/Hot_chocolate" title="Hot chocolate">hot chocolate</a>. A dough made with cooked pumpkin or squash, often shaped and fried into doughnuts and served with a sweet fruity dipping sauce, is a traditional favorite. Bread is an ingredient of <a href="/wiki/Sopas_de_ajo" title="Sopas de ajo" class="mw-redirect">sopas de ajo</a>, <a href="/wiki/Gazpacho" title="Gazpacho">gazpacho</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Salmorejo" title="Salmorejo">salmorejo</a>.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="North_Africa">North Africa</span></h3>
<p>In Ethiopia in east North Africa, a bread called <i>injera</i> is made from a grain called <i>teff</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></a></sup> This is a wide, flat, circular bread that is in a similar shape of a tortilla and is also used as a utensil to pick up food.</p>
<p>Also consumed is a thick and chewy fried bread that is smothered in oil beforehand. The <i>rghifa</i> bread is a staple in the food of Morocco and consists of several layers of lightly cooked bread.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="North_America">North America</span></h3>
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Cornbread</div>
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<p>Traditional breads in the <a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a> include cornbreads and various quick breads, such as biscuits. Rolls, made from wheat flour and yeast, are another popular and traditional bread, eaten with the dinner meal.</p>
<p><a href="/wiki/Cornbread" title="Cornbread">Cornbread</a> is made from cornmeal and can differ significantly in taste and texture from region to region. In general, the <a href="/wiki/Southern_United_States" title="Southern United States">South</a> prefers white cornmeal with little to no wheat flour or sweeteners added; it is traditionally baked in a cast-iron skillet and ideally has a crunchy outside and moist inside. The <a href="/wiki/Northern_United_States" title="Northern United States">North</a> usually prefers yellow cornmeal with sometimes as much as half wheat flour in its composition, as well as sugar, honey, or maple syrup. This results in a bread that is softer and sweeter than its southern counterpart. Wheat flour was not available to the average North American family until the early 1900s when a new breed of wheat termed <a href="/wiki/Red_Fife_wheat" title="Red Fife wheat">Marquis</a> was produced. This was a hybrid of Red Fife and <a href="/wiki/Hard_red_winter_wheat" title="Hard red winter wheat" class="mw-redirect">Hard red winter wheat</a>. Marquis grew well and soon average Americans were able to have homemade wheat bread on the table.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup> Homemade wheat breads are made in a rectangular tin similar to those in the United Kingdom.</p>
<p>Spoon bread, also called batter bread or egg bread, is made of cornmeal with or without added rice and hominy, and is mixed with milk, eggs, shortening and leavening to such a consistency that it must be served from the baking dish with a spoon. This is popular chiefly in the South.</p>
<p>Sourdough biscuits are traditional "cowboy food" in the <a href="/wiki/Western_United_States" title="Western United States">West</a>. The <a href="/wiki/San_Francisco_Bay_Area" title="San Francisco Bay Area">San Francisco Bay Area</a> is known for its crusty <a href="/wiki/Sourdough" title="Sourdough">sourdough</a>.</p>
<p>Up until the 20th century (and even later in certain regions), any flour other than cornmeal was considered a luxury; this would explain the greater variety in cornbread types compared to that of wheat breads. In terms of commercial manufacture, the most popular bread has been a soft-textured type with a thin crust that is usually made with milk and is slightly sweet; this is the type that is generally sold ready-sliced in packages. It is usually eaten with the crust, but some eaters or preparers may remove the crust due to a personal preference or style of serving, as with finger sandwiches served with <a href="/wiki/Afternoon_tea" title="Afternoon tea" class="mw-redirect">afternoon tea</a>. Some of the softest bread, including <a href="/wiki/Wonder_Bread" title="Wonder Bread">Wonder Bread</a>, is referred to as "balloon bread".</p>
<p>Though white "<a href="/wiki/Sandwich_bread" title="Sandwich bread">sandwich bread</a>" is the most popular, Americans are trending toward more <a href="/wiki/Artisanal" title="Artisanal" class="mw-redirect">artisanal</a> breads. Different regions of the country feature certain ethnic bread varieties including the Ashkenazi Jewish <a href="/wiki/Bagel" title="Bagel">bagel</a>, the French <a href="/wiki/Baguette" title="Baguette">baguette</a>, the Italian-style <a href="/wiki/Scali_bread" title="Scali bread">scali bread</a> made in <a href="/wiki/New_England" title="New England">New England</a>, Jewish rye, commonly associated with <a href="/wiki/Delicatessen" title="Delicatessen">delicatessen</a> cuisine, and <a href="/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States" title="Native Americans in the United States">Native American</a> <a href="/wiki/Frybread" title="Frybread">frybread</a> (a product of hardship, developed during the Indian resettlements of the 19th century).</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Religious_significance">Religious significance</span></h2>
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The <a href="/wiki/Eucharist" title="Eucharist">Eucharist</a> (also called Holy Communion or the Lord’s Supper) is considered a sacrament, ordinance, or equivalent in most Christian denominations.</div>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Abrahamic_religions"><a href="/wiki/Abrahamic_religions" title="Abrahamic religions">Abrahamic religions</a></span></h3>
<p>During the <a href="/wiki/Jewish" title="Jewish" class="mw-redirect">Jewish</a> festival of <a href="/wiki/Passover" title="Passover">Passover</a>, only unleavened bread is eaten, in commemoration of the flight from slavery in Egypt. The Israelites did not have enough time to allow their bread to rise, and so ate only unleavened bread (<i><a href="/wiki/Matzoh" title="Matzoh" class="mw-redirect">matzoh</a></i>).<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In the <a href="/wiki/Christian" title="Christian">Christian</a> ritual of the <a href="/wiki/Eucharist" title="Eucharist">Eucharist</a>, bread symbolically represents the body of Christ, and is eaten as a <a href="/wiki/Sacrament" title="Sacrament">sacrament</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup> Specific aspects of the ritual itself, including the composition of the bread, vary from denomination to denomination. The differences in the practice of the Eucharist stem from different descriptions and depictions of the <a href="/wiki/Last_Supper" title="Last Supper">Last Supper</a> which provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Synoptic_Gospels" title="Synoptic Gospels">Synoptic Gospels</a> present the Last Supper as a Passover meal and suggest that the bread at the Last Supper would be unleavened. However, in the chronology in Gospel of John, the Last Supper occurred the day before Passover suggesting that the bread would be leavened. Despite this point of disagreement, the <a href="/wiki/Council_of_Florence" title="Council of Florence">Council of Florence</a> of the Catholic church agreed that “the body of Christ is truly confected in both unleavened and leavened wheat bread, and priests should confect the body of Christ in either”.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Paganism"><a href="/wiki/Paganism" title="Paganism">Paganism</a></span></h3>
<p>Some traditions of <a href="/wiki/Wicca" title="Wicca">Wicca</a> and <a href="/wiki/Neo-Paganism" title="Neo-Paganism" class="mw-redirect">Neo-Paganism</a> consume bread as part of their religious rituals, attaching varied symbolism to the act.<sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Anti-bread_movements">Anti-bread movements</span></h2>
<p>Although eaten by nearly all people, some have rejected bread entirely or rejected types of bread that they consider unhealthy. Reasons for doing so have varied through history: whole grain bread has been criticized as being unrefined, and white bread as being unhealthfully processed; homemade bread has been deemed unsanitary, and factory-made bread regarded with suspicion for being adulterated.<sup id="cite_ref-Copeland_35-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Copeland-35"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup> <i>Amylophobia</i>, literally "fear of starch", was a movement in the US during the 1920s and 1930s.<sup id="cite_ref-Copeland_35-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Copeland-35"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In the United States, bread sales fell by 11.3% between 2008 and 2013. This statistic might reflect a change in the types of food from which Americans are getting their carbohydrates, but the trends are unclear because of differences between the markets for different classes of bread products.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55"><span>[</span>55<span>]</span></a></sup> It is also possible that changing diet fashions affected the decrease in bread sales during that period.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56"><span>[</span>56<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="In_medicine">In medicine</span></h2>
<p>The ancient Egyptians used moldy bread to treat infections that arose from dirt in burn wounds.<sup id="cite_ref-Pe.C4.87anac-_57-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Pe.C4.87anac--57"><span>[</span>57<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<div class="noprint portal tright" style="border:solid #aaa 1px;margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em">
<table style="background:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;max-width:175px">
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<td style="padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:middle;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Food" title="Portal:Food">Food portal</a></td>
</tr>
</table>
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<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 25em; -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_clip" title="Bread clip">Bread clip</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Culinary_arts" title="Culinary arts" class="mw-redirect">Culinary arts</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_brand_name_breads" title="List of brand name breads">List of brand name breads</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_breads" title="List of breads">List of breads</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_American_breads" title="List of American breads">List of American breads</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_bread_dishes" title="List of bread dishes">List of bread dishes</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_foods" title="List of foods">List of foods</a></li>
<li><a href="/w/index.php?title=World_Day_of_Bread&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="World Day of Bread (page does not exist)">World Day of Bread</a></li>
</ul>
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<dl>
<dt>Breadmaking ingredients, techniques and tools</dt>
</dl>
<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 25em; -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Baker_percentage" title="Baker percentage">Baker percentage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Baker%27s_yeast" title="Baker's yeast">Baker's yeast</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_machine" title="Bread machine">Bread machine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_pan" title="Bread pan">Bread pan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quick_bread" title="Quick bread">Quick bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sliced_bread" title="Sliced bread">Sliced bread</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<dl>
<dt>Culinary uses</dt>
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<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 25em; -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_Bowl" title="Bread Bowl" class="mw-redirect">Bread Bowl</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Breadcrumbs" title="Breadcrumbs" class="mw-redirect">Breadcrumbs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Breading" title="Breading" class="mw-redirect">Breading</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Crouton" title="Crouton">Croutons</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Melba_toast" title="Melba toast">Melba toast</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sop" title="Sop">Sop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stuffing" title="Stuffing">Stuffing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Toast" title="Toast">Toast</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<dl>
<dt><a href="/wiki/List_of_breads" title="List of breads">Types of breads</a></dt>
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<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 25em; -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anadama_bread" title="Anadama bread">Anadama bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Barley_bread" title="Barley bread">Barley bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Beer_bread" title="Beer bread">Beer bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Biscuit" title="Biscuit">Biscuit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_roll" title="Bread roll">Bread roll</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brioche" title="Brioche">Brioche</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Broa" title="Broa">Broa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brown_bread" title="Brown bread">Brown bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bun" title="Bun">Bun</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bush_bread" title="Bush bread">Bush bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Canadian_White" title="Canadian White" class="mw-redirect">Canadian White</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cardamom_bread" title="Cardamom bread">Cardamom bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Challah" title="Challah">Challah</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chapati" title="Chapati">Chapati</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cornbread" title="Cornbread">Cornbread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cottage_loaf" title="Cottage loaf">Cottage loaf</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Damper_(food)" title="Damper (food)">Damper</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flatbread" title="Flatbread">Flatbread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Focaccia" title="Focaccia">Focaccia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horsebread" title="Horsebread">Horsebread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Indian_bread" title="Indian bread">Indian bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Irish_soda_bread" title="Irish soda bread" class="mw-redirect">Irish soda bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ka%27ak" title="Ka'ak">Ka'ak</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lavash" title="Lavash">Lavash</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mantou" title="Mantou">Mantou</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Matzo" title="Matzo">Matzo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Melonpan" title="Melonpan">Melonpan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monkey_bread" title="Monkey bread">Monkey bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Naan" title="Naan">Naan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pandoro" title="Pandoro">Pandoro</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Paratha" title="Paratha">Paratha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pashti" title="Pashti">Pashti</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pita" title="Pita">Pita</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Portuguese_sweet_bread" title="Portuguese sweet bread">Portuguese sweet bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Potato_bread" title="Potato bread">Potato bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Proja" title="Proja">Proja</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pumpernickel" title="Pumpernickel">Pumpernickel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Puri_(food)" title="Puri (food)">Puri</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rice_bread" title="Rice bread">Rice bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Roti" title="Roti">Roti</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rye_bread" title="Rye bread">Rye bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Seed_cake" title="Seed cake" class="mw-disambig">Seed cakes</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Texas_toast" title="Texas toast">Texas toast</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tiger_bread" title="Tiger bread">Tiger bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tortilla" title="Tortilla">Tortilla</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/White_bread" title="White bread">White bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Whole-wheat_bread" title="Whole-wheat bread" class="mw-redirect">Whole-wheat bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zopf" title="Zopf">Zopf</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<div class="reflist references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-etym-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-etym_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-etym_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Harper, Douglas. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bread">"bread"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Online_Etymology_Dictionary" title="Online Etymology Dictionary">Online Etymology Dictionary</a></i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Harper%2C+Douglas&amp;rft.btitle=bread&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.etymonline.com%2Findex.php%3Fterm%3Dbread&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Diakonov, I. M. (1999). <i>The paths of history</i>. Cambridge University Press. p.&#160;79. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0521643988" title="Special:BookSources/0521643988">0521643988</a>. <q>Slavic langues retain many Gothic words, reflecting cultural borrowings: thus <i>khleb</i>, (bread) from an earlier <i>khleiba</i> from Gothic<i>hlaifs</i>, or, rather, from the more ancient form <i>hlaibhaz</i>, which meant bread baked in an oven (and, probably, made with yeast), as different from a l-iepekha, which was a flat cake moulded (liepiti) from paste, and baked on charcoal. [the same nominal stem *hlaibh- has been preserved in modern English as loaf; cf. Lord, from ancient <i>hlafweard</i> bread-keeper]</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Diakonov%2C+I.+M.&amp;rft.btitle=The+paths+of+history&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0521643988&amp;rft.pages=79&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513251/Russia/38557/The-Civil-War-and-War-Communism-1918-21">"Russia"</a>. <i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 June</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Russia&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.britannica.com%2FEBchecked%2Ftopic%2F513251%2FRussia%2F38557%2FThe-Civil-War-and-War-Communism-1918-21&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/lenin/section6.rhtml">"Vladimir Lenin: From March to October. SparkNotes"</a>. Sparknotes.com<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 June</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Vladimir+Lenin%3A+From+March+to+October.+SparkNotes&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sparknotes.com%2Fbiography%2Flenin%2Fsection6.rhtml&amp;rft.pub=Sparknotes.com&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://people.scs.fsu.edu/~burkardt/fun/wordplay/rhyme_slang.html">Cockney Rhyming Slang</a>. <i>People</i>.scs.fsu.edu (23 January 2013). Retrieved 21 March 2013.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-10-prehistoric-ate-flatbread-years.html">"Prehistoric man ate flatbread 30,000 years ago: study"</a>. Physorg.com. Agence France-Presse. 19 October 2010<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">19 October</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Prehistoric+man+ate+flatbread+30%2C000+years+ago%3A+study&amp;rft.date=19+October+2010&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.physorg.com%2Fnews%2F2010-10-prehistoric-ate-flatbread-years.html&amp;rft.pub=Physorg.com&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">McGee, Harold (2004). <i>On food and cooking</i>. Scribner. p.&#160;517. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-684-80001-2" title="Special:BookSources/0-684-80001-2">0-684-80001-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=Harold&amp;rft.aulast=McGee&amp;rft.btitle=On+food+and+cooking&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-684-80001-2&amp;rft.pages=517&amp;rft.pub=Scribner&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Tannahill, Reay (1973). <i>Food in History</i>. Stein and Day. pp.&#160;68–69. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8128-1437-1" title="Special:BookSources/0-8128-1437-1">0-8128-1437-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=Reay&amp;rft.aulast=Tannahill&amp;rft.btitle=Food+in+History&amp;rft.date=1973&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-8128-1437-1&amp;rft.pages=68-69&amp;rft.pub=Stein+and+Day&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20120522022319/http://www.allotment.org.uk/recipes/bread-making/chorleywood-process">Chorleywood Industrial Bread Making Process</a>. allotment.org.uk</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">CBS Interactive Inc. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/02/08/earlyshow/saturday/main3808472.shtml">White Bread in Wheat Bread's Clothing</a> CBS Early Show. Retrieved 14 June 2008.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.rankhovis.co.uk/granary/">Products / Hovis ~ Brands</a>. rankhovis.co.uk</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Benhaim, Paul (2003). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=gEc24wQ7aegC&amp;pg=PA32"><i>Modern introduction to hemp: food and fibre: past, present and future</i></a>. [Mullumbimby, N.S.W.]: P. Benhaim. p.&#160;32. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-9751482-0-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-9751482-0-6">0-9751482-0-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Benhaim%2C+Paul&amp;rft.btitle=Modern+introduction+to+hemp%3A+food+and+fibre%3A+past%2C+present+and+future&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DgEc24wQ7aegC%26pg%3DPA32&amp;rft.isbn=0-9751482-0-6&amp;rft.pages=32&amp;rft.place=%5BMullumbimby%2C+N.S.W.%5D&amp;rft.pub=P.+Benhaim&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Cicero, Dennis; Czartoryski, Kris; Gruber, Suzanne and Michael, Lipp (2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=ZUwXSQpubIcC&amp;pg=PR26&amp;lpg=PR26"><i>The Galaxy Global Eatery Hemp Cookbook</i></a>. Frog Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-58394-055-3" title="Special:BookSources/1-58394-055-3">1-58394-055-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Cicero%2C+Dennis%3B+Czartoryski%2C+Kris%3B+Gruber%2C+Suzanne+and+Michael%2C+Lipp&amp;rft.btitle=The+Galaxy+Global+Eatery+Hemp+Cookbook&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DZUwXSQpubIcC%26pg%3DPR26%26lpg%3DPR26&amp;rft.isbn=1-58394-055-3&amp;rft.pub=Frog+Books&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Bavec, Martina and Bavec, Franc (2006). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=70Ey7Kwqf3EC&amp;pg=PA177"><i>Organic Production and Use of Alternative Crops</i></a>. London: Taylor &amp; Francis Ltd. pp.&#160;177–178. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-4200-1742-X" title="Special:BookSources/1-4200-1742-X">1-4200-1742-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Bavec%2C+Martina+and+Bavec%2C+Franc&amp;rft.btitle=Organic+Production+and+Use+of+Alternative+Crops&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D70Ey7Kwqf3EC%26pg%3DPA177&amp;rft.isbn=1-4200-1742-X&amp;rft.pages=177-178&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Taylor+%26+Francis+Ltd&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Finley, John H.; Phillips, R. O. (1989). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=cYjWtWt5O9IC&amp;pg=PA371"><i>Protein quality and the effects of processing</i></a>. New York: M. Dekker. p.&#160;See Figure 2. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8247-7984-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-8247-7984-3">0-8247-7984-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Finley%2C+John+H.%3B+Phillips%2C+R.+O.&amp;rft.btitle=Protein+quality+and+the+effects+of+processing&amp;rft.date=1989&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DcYjWtWt5O9IC%26pg%3DPA371&amp;rft.isbn=0-8247-7984-3&amp;rft.pages=See+Figure+2&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=M.+Dekker&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Jeffrey Hamelman (2004). <i>Bread: a baker's book of techniques and recipes</i>. New York: John Wiley. pp.&#160;7–13. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-471-16857-2" title="Special:BookSources/0-471-16857-2">0-471-16857-2</a>. <q>A high gluten white flour will require more mix time than a white flour with a lower gluten content,...</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Jeffrey+Hamelman&amp;rft.btitle=Bread%3A+a+baker%27s+book+of+techniques+and+recipes&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-471-16857-2&amp;rft.pages=7-13&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=John+Wiley&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://food.laurieashton.com/2009/06/bakers-percentages-and-bread-hydration/">Hydration ratio for breads</a>. Food.laurieashton.com (5 June 2009). Retrieved 21 March 2013.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Edwards, W.P. (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=oCVPjK0mSfkC&amp;pg=PA68"><i>The science of bakery products</i></a>. Cambridge, Eng: Royal Society of Chemistry. p.&#160;68. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-85404-486-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-85404-486-8">0-85404-486-8</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 December</span> 2012</span>. <q>When bread expands in the oven the resulting expansion is known as oven spring. It has been calculated that water expansion was responsible for some 60% of the expansion.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Edwards%2C+W.P.&amp;rft.btitle=The+science+of+bakery+products&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DoCVPjK0mSfkC%26pg%3DPA68&amp;rft.isbn=0-85404-486-8&amp;rft.pages=68&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+Eng&amp;rft.pub=Royal+Society+of+Chemistry&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://home.comcast.net/~petsonk/">"Susan R. Brown’s Salt Rising Bread Project"</a>. Home.comcast.net<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 June</span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Susan+R.+Brown%E2%80%99s+Salt+Rising+Bread+Project&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.comcast.net%2F~petsonk%2F&amp;rft.pub=Home.comcast.net&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Kilcast, D.; McKenna, B. M., ed. (2003). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=u-K8UuyKT48C&amp;pg=PA448"><i>Texture in food</i></a>. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Pub. p.&#160;448. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-85573-724-8" title="Special:BookSources/1-85573-724-8">1-85573-724-8</a>. <q>The arrival of the Pressure-Vacuum mixer, developed by the Flour Milling and Baking Research ASsociation (FMBRA) at Chorleywood, provides bakers with unique opportunities for creating new cell structures in bread products because of the greatly improved possibilities for manipulating gas bubble populations in the mixed dough. Nor are the opportunities limited to the incorporation of air during dough mixing. As long ago as the 1970s FMBRA showed that the modification of the gas composition of the mixer headspace also contributed to bread crumb structure (Chaberlain and Collins, 1979).</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Texture+in+food&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Du-K8UuyKT48C%26pg%3DPA448&amp;rft.isbn=1-85573-724-8&amp;rft.pages=448&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+England&amp;rft.pub=Woodhead+Pub&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Young, Linda; Cauvain, Stanley P. (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=HXtJivmeDfcC&amp;pg=PA54"><i>Technology of Breadmaking</i></a>. Berlin: Springer. p.&#160;54. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-387-38563-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-387-38563-0">0-387-38563-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Young%2C+Linda%3B+Cauvain%2C+Stanley+P.&amp;rft.btitle=Technology+of+Breadmaking&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DHXtJivmeDfcC%26pg%3DPA54&amp;rft.isbn=0-387-38563-0&amp;rft.pages=54&amp;rft.place=Berlin&amp;rft.pub=Springer&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Silverton, Nancy (1996) <i>Breads From The La Brea Bakery</i>, Villard, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0679409076" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0679409076</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Reinhart, Peter (2001) <i>The Bread Baker's Apprentice: Mastering the Art of Extraordinary Bread</i>, Ten Speed Press, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1580082688" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 1580082688</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Gelinas, Pierre; McKinnon, Carole M. (2006). "Effect of wheat variety, farming site, and bread-baking on total phenolics". <i>International Journal of Food Science and Technology</i> <b>41</b> (3): 329. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2621.2005.01057.x">10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01057.x</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Effect+of+wheat+variety%2C+farming+site%2C+and+bread-baking+on+total+phenolics&amp;rft.aufirst=Pierre&amp;rft.aulast=Gelinas&amp;rft.au=McKinnon%2C+Carole+M.&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1111%2Fj.1365-2621.2005.01057.x&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Food+Science+and+Technology&amp;rft.pages=329&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=41" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Boskov Hansen, H, Andreasen, MF, Nielsen, MM, Melchior Larsen, L, Bach Knudsen, KE, Meyer, AS, Christensen, LP &amp; Hansen, Å; Andreasen; Nielsen; Larsen; Knudsen; Meyer; Christensen; Hansen (2002). "Changes in dietary fibre, phenolic acids and activity of endogenous enzymes during rye bread-making". <i>European Food Research and Technology</i> <b>214</b>: 33. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00217-001-0417-6">10.1007/s00217-001-0417-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Changes+in+dietary+fibre%2C+phenolic+acids+and+activity+of+endogenous+enzymes+during+rye+bread-making&amp;rft.au=Andreasen&amp;rft.au=Boskov+Hansen%2C+H%2C+Andreasen%2C+MF%2C+Nielsen%2C+MM%2C+Melchior+Larsen%2C+L%2C+Bach+Knudsen%2C+KE%2C+Meyer%2C+AS%2C+Christensen%2C+LP+%26+Hansen%2C+%C3%85&amp;rft.au=Christensen&amp;rft.au=Hansen&amp;rft.au=Knudsen&amp;rft.au=Larsen&amp;rft.au=Meyer&amp;rft.au=Nielsen&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1007%2Fs00217-001-0417-6&amp;rft.jtitle=European+Food+Research+and+Technology&amp;rft.pages=33&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=214" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Strandås, C.; Kamal-Eldin, A.; Andersson, R.; Åman, P. (2008). "Phenolic glucosides in bread containing flaxseed". <i>Food Chemistry</i> <b>110</b> (4): 997. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.foodchem.2008.02.088">10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.088</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Phenolic+glucosides+in+bread+containing+flaxseed&amp;rft.au=Andersson%2C+R.&amp;rft.au=%C3%85man%2C+P.&amp;rft.aufirst=C.&amp;rft.au=Kamal-Eldin%2C+A.&amp;rft.aulast=Strand%C3%A5s&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fj.foodchem.2008.02.088&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.jtitle=Food+Chemistry&amp;rft.pages=997&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=110" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf">Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010</a>. U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Ring, Evelyn (5 October 2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.irishexaminer.com/ireland/bread-that-stays-fresh-for-2-weeks-to-hit-shelves-by-year-end-102530.html">"Bread that stays fresh for 2 weeks to hit shelves by year-end"</a>. <i>Irish Examiner</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Bread+that+stays+fresh+for+2+weeks+to+hit+shelves+by+year-end&amp;rft.aufirst=Evelyn&amp;rft.aulast=Ring&amp;rft.date=5+October+2009&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.irishexaminer.com%2Fireland%2Fbread-that-stays-fresh-for-2-weeks-to-hit-shelves-by-year-end-102530.html&amp;rft.jtitle=Irish+Examiner&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-dialect_survey-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-dialect_survey_29-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Vaux, Bert. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_111.html">"Dialect Survey: What do you call the end of a loaf of bread?"</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 March</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=Bert&amp;rft.aulast=Vaux&amp;rft.btitle=Dialect+Survey%3A+What+do+you+call+the+end+of+a+loaf+of+bread%3F&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww4.uwm.edu%2FFLL%2Flinguistics%2Fdialect%2Fstaticmaps%2Fq_111.html&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Winkler, Sarah (29 July 2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/food-nutrition/facts/eating-bread-crust.htm">"Discovery Health "Is eating bread crust really good for you?<span style="padding-right:0.2em;">"</span>"</a>. Health.howstuffworks.com<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 October</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=Sarah&amp;rft.aulast=Winkler&amp;rft.btitle=Discovery+Health+%22Is+eating+bread+crust+really+good+for+you%3F%22&amp;rft.date=29+July+2009&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhealth.howstuffworks.com%2Fwellness%2Ffood-nutrition%2Ffacts%2Feating-bread-crust.htm&amp;rft.pub=Health.howstuffworks.com&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Hofmann, T; Lindenmeier, M; Somoza, V (2005). "Pronyl-Lysine—A Novel Protein Modification in Bread Crust Melanoidins Showing <i>in Vitro</i> Antioxidative and Phase I/II Enzyme Modulating Activity". <i>Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences</i> <b>1043</b>: 887. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode" title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NYASA1043..887H">2005NYASA1043..887H</a>. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//dx.doi.org/10.1196%2Fannals.1333.101">10.1196/annals.1333.101</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Pronyl-Lysine%E2%80%94A+Novel+Protein+Modification+in+Bread+Crust+Melanoidins+Showing+in+Vitro+Antioxidative+and+Phase+I%2FII+Enzyme+Modulating+Activity&amp;rft.aufirst=T&amp;rft.aulast=Hofmann&amp;rft.au=Lindenmeier%2C+M&amp;rft.au=Somoza%2C+V&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=info%3Abibcode%2F2005NYASA1043..887H&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1196%2Fannals.1333.101&amp;rft.jtitle=Annals+of+the+New+York+Academy+of+Sciences&amp;rft.pages=887&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=1043" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Panneerselvam, J; Aranganathan, S; Nalini, N (2009). "Inhibitory effect of bread crust antioxidant pronyl-lysine on two different categories of colonic premalignant lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine". <i>European journal of cancer prevention&#160;: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)</i> <b>18</b> (4): 291–302. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//dx.doi.org/10.1097%2FCEJ.0b013e32832945a6">10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32832945a6</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19417676">19417676</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Inhibitory+effect+of+bread+crust+antioxidant+pronyl-lysine+on+two+different+categories+of+colonic+premalignant+lesions+induced+by+1%2C2-dimethylhydrazine&amp;rft.au=Aranganathan%2C+S&amp;rft.aufirst=J&amp;rft.aulast=Panneerselvam&amp;rft.au=Nalini%2C+N&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1097%2FCEJ.0b013e32832945a6&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F19417676&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.jtitle=European+journal+of+cancer+prevention+%3A+the+official+journal+of+the+European+Cancer+Prevention+Organisation+%28ECP%29&amp;rft.pages=291-302&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=18" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Panneerselvam, Jayabal; Aranganathan, Selvaraj; Nalini, Namasivayam (2009). "Inhibitory effect of bread crust antioxidant pronyl-lysine on two different categories of colonic premalignant lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine". <i>European Journal of Cancer Prevention</i> <b>18</b> (4): 291–302. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//dx.doi.org/10.1097%2FCEJ.0b013e32832945a6">10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32832945a6</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19417676">19417676</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Inhibitory+effect+of+bread+crust+antioxidant+pronyl-lysine+on+two+different+categories+of+colonic+premalignant+lesions+induced+by+1%2C2-dimethylhydrazine&amp;rft.au=Aranganathan%2C+Selvaraj&amp;rft.aufirst=Jayabal&amp;rft.aulast=Panneerselvam&amp;rft.au=Nalini%2C+Namasivayam&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1097%2FCEJ.0b013e32832945a6&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F19417676&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.jtitle=European+Journal+of+Cancer+Prevention&amp;rft.pages=291-302&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=18" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-OnlineED-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-OnlineED_34-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=companion&amp;allowed_in_frame=0">"companion"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Online_Etymology_Dictionary" title="Online Etymology Dictionary">Online Etymology Dictionary</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=companion&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.etymonline.com%2Findex.php%3Fterm%3Dcompanion%26allowed_in_frame%3D0&amp;rft.pub=Online+Etymology+Dictionary&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Copeland-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Copeland_35-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Copeland_35-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Copeland_35-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Copeland, Libby (6 April 2012) <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.slate.com/articles/double_x/doublex/2012/04/a_review_of_white_bread_a_new_book_about_our_nation_s_fear_of_flour_.single.html">"White Bread Kills: A history of a national paranoia."</a> <i>Slate</i></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Beeton-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Beeton_36-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Beeton, Mrs (1861). <i><a href="/wiki/Mrs_Beeton%27s_Book_of_Household_Management" title="Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management">Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management</a></i> (Facsimile edition, 1968 ed.). London: S.O. Beeton, 18 Bouverie St. E.C. p.&#160;832. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-224-61473-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-224-61473-8">0-224-61473-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=Mrs&amp;rft.aulast=Beeton&amp;rft.btitle=Mrs+Beeton%27s+Book+of+Household+Management&amp;rft.date=1861&amp;rft.edition=Facsimile+edition%2C+1968&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-224-61473-8&amp;rft.pages=832&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=S.O.+Beeton%2C+18+Bouverie+St.+E.C.&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.fabflour.co.uk/fab-flour/traditions/">Flour related traditions and quotes</a>. fabflour.co.uk</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/lifestyle/10/06/10/pinoy-tasty-arrives">"Pinoy Tasty arrives"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/ABS-CBN_News_and_Current_Affairs" title="ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs">ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs</a></i>. 6 October 2010<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 March</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Pinoy+Tasty+arrives&amp;rft.date=6+October+2010&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.abs-cbnnews.com%2Flifestyle%2F10%2F06%2F10%2Fpinoy-tasty-arrives&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.gmanews.tv/story/202660/pinoy-tasty-generic-bread-debuts-at-p36-per-loaf">"Pinoy Tasty, generic bread, debuts at P36 per loaf"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/GMA_News_and_Public_Affairs" title="GMA News and Public Affairs">GMA News and Public Affairs</a></i>. 5 October 2010<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">15 March</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Pinoy+Tasty%2C+generic+bread%2C+debuts+at+P36+per+loaf&amp;rft.date=5+October+2010&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gmanews.tv%2Fstory%2F202660%2Fpinoy-tasty-generic-bread-debuts-at-p36-per-loaf&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Grazione-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Grazione_40-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://grazione.ru/eng/novosti/~shownews/Bread-by-our-neighbors">"Bread, which is loved, by our neighbors"</a>. grazione.ru. 6 July 2012.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Bread%2C+which+is+loved%2C+by+our+neighbors&amp;rft.date=6+July+2012&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fgrazione.ru%2Feng%2Fnovosti%2F~shownews%2FBread-by-our-neighbors&amp;rft.pub=grazione.ru&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FoddyChile-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FoddyChile_41-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/20120706233016/http://foodychile.com:80/2012/02/14/el-tamiz-bread-cheesecake-and-a-bit-of-variety/">"El Tamiz: Bread, cheesecake and a bit of variety"</a>. foodychile.com. 14 February 2012. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://foodychile.com/2012/02/14/el-tamiz-bread-cheesecake-and-a-bit-of-variety">the original</a> on 6 July 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">19 December</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=El+Tamiz%3A+Bread%2C+cheesecake+and+a+bit+of+variety&amp;rft.date=14+February+2012&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffoodychile.com%2F2012%2F02%2F14%2Fel-tamiz-bread-cheesecake-and-a-bit-of-variety&amp;rft.pub=foodychile.com&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Six_Servings-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Six_Servings_42-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/20130114151325/http://www.sixservings.org/2010/10/bread-makes-the-world-go-round/">"Bread Makes the World Go Round"</a>. sixservings.org. 15 October 2010. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.sixservings.org/2010/10/bread-makes-the-world-go-round/">the original</a> on 14 January 2013.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Bread+Makes+the+World+Go+Round&amp;rft.date=15+October+2010&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sixservings.org%2F2010%2F10%2Fbread-makes-the-world-go-round%2F&amp;rft.pub=sixservings.org&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Fundi2-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Fundi2_43-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://fundi2.com/2011/07/chilean-bread">"Chilean Bread"</a>. fundi2.com. 6 July 2011.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.btitle=Chilean+Bread&amp;rft.date=6+July+2011&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffundi2.com%2F2011%2F07%2Fchilean-bread&amp;rft.pub=fundi2.com&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Kamala. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cookatease.com/bread-and-salt-ceremony-in-europe">"Bread and Salt Ceremony in Europe"</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Kamala&amp;rft.btitle=Bread+and+Salt+Ceremony+in+Europe&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cookatease.com%2Fbread-and-salt-ceremony-in-europe&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.today.com/news/mon-dieu-new-campaign-urges-french-eat-more-bread-6C10855685">Mon dieu! New campaign urges French to eat more bread – TODAY.com</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-13670278">Chorleywood, the Bread that Changed Britain</a>. BBC.co.uk (7 June 2011). Retrieved 21 March 2013.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20070629204630/http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/averroes/vertie/motivadores/histopan.htm">La histopa del pan</a>. Juntadeandalucia.es. Retrieved 21 March 2013.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-48">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/bread/recipe-injera.html">Ethiopian Injera Recipe | Exploratorium</a>. Exploratorium.edu. Retrieved 21 March 2013.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Katz, Solomon. <i>Charles Scribner's Sons,</i> (Vol 3 ed.). New York: Gale. p.&#160;531.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=Solomon&amp;rft.aulast=Katz&amp;rft.btitle=Charles+Scribner%27s+Sons%2C&amp;rft.edition=Vol+3&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pages=531&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Gale&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-50">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.askmoses.com/article.html?h=107&amp;o=60495">Thought For Food: An Overview of the Seder</a>. <i>Farbrengen Magazine</i></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-51"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-51">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9033174/Eucharist">Eucharist (Christianity) – Encyclopedia Britannica</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Walter Hazen (1 September 2002). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=edXChxGzxgoC&amp;pg=PA34"><i>Inside Christianity</i></a>. Lorenz Educational Press<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 April</span> 2012</span>. <q>The Anglican Church in England uses the term Holy Communion. In the Roman Catholic Church, both terms are used. Most Protestant churches refer to the sacrament simply as communion or The Lord's Supper. Communion reenacts the Last Supper that Jesus ate with His disciples before He was arrested and crucified.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Walter+Hazen&amp;rft.btitle=Inside+Christianity&amp;rft.date=1+September+2002&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DedXChxGzxgoC%26pg%3DPA34&amp;rft.pub=Lorenz+Educational+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-53">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Albury, W. R.; Weisz, G. M. (2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://moses.creighton.edu/jrs/2009/2009-1.pdf">"Depicting the Bread of the Last Supper"</a> <span style="font-size:85%;">(PDF)</span>. <i>Journal of Religion and Society</i> <b>11</b>: 1–17.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Depicting+the+Bread+of+the+Last+Supper&amp;rft.au=Albury%2C+W.+R.&amp;rft.au=Weisz%2C+G.+M.&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmoses.creighton.edu%2Fjrs%2F2009%2F2009-1.pdf&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Religion+and+Society&amp;rft.pages=1-17&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=11" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-54">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Sabrina, Lady (2006). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/books?id=ZeRKlCbOdnIC&amp;pg=PA100"><i>Exploring Wicca: The Beliefs, Rites, and Rituals of the Wiccan Religion</i></a>. Career Press. pp.&#160;100–. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-56414-884-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-56414-884-1">978-1-56414-884-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.au=Sabrina%2C+Lady&amp;rft.btitle=Exploring+Wicca%3A+The+Beliefs%2C+Rites%2C+and+Rituals+of+the+Wiccan+Religion&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DZeRKlCbOdnIC%26pg%3DPA100&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-56414-884-1&amp;rft.pages=100-&amp;rft.pub=Career+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Sosland, Josh. Bread market remains challenging. Food Business News, 17 September 2013 <a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="http://www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/news_home/Business_News/2013/09/Bread_market_remains_challengi.aspx?ID={DF39136B-7B1E-4C35-831E-558A8E92BAAF}&amp;cck=1">[1]</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rozanne-gold/why-bread-is-no-longer-ri_b_2050547.html">Why Bread Is No Longer Rising</a>. <i>The Huffington Post</i>. 31 October 2012</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Pe.C4.87anac--57"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Pe.C4.87anac-_57-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Pećanac, M.; Janjić, Z.; Komarcević, A.; Pajić, M.; Dobanovacki, D.; Misković, SS. (2013). "Burns treatment in ancient times.". <i>Med Pregl</i> <b>66</b> (5–6): 263–7. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fs0264-410x%2802%2900603-5">10.1016/s0264-410x(02)00603-5</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23888738">23888738</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Burns+treatment+in+ancient+times.&amp;rft.au=Dobanovacki%2C+D.&amp;rft.aufirst=M.&amp;rft.au=Janji%C4%87%2C+Z.&amp;rft.au=Komarcevi%C4%87%2C+A.&amp;rft.aulast=Pe%C4%87anac&amp;rft.au=Miskovi%C4%87%2C+SS.&amp;rft.au=Paji%C4%87%2C+M.&amp;rft.date=2013&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2Fs0264-410x%2802%2900603-5&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F23888738&amp;rft.issue=5%E2%80%936&amp;rft.jtitle=Med+Pregl&amp;rft.pages=263-7&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=66" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2>
<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
<ul>
<li>Kaplan, Steven Laurence: <i>Good Bread is Back: A Contemporary History of French Bread, the Way It Is Made, and the People Who Make It</i>. Durham/ London: Duke University Press, 2006. <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780822338338" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-8223-3833-8</a></li>
<li>Jacob, Heinrich Eduard: <i>Six Thousand Years of Bread. Its Holy and Unholy History</i>. Garden City / New York: Doubleday, Doran and Comp., 1944. New 1997: New York: Lyons &amp; Burford, Publishers (Foreword by Lynn Alley), <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1558215751" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 1-55821-575-1</a> &amp;lt</li>
<li>Spiekermann, Uwe: <i>Brown Bread for Victory: German and British Wholemeal Politics in the Inter-War Period</i>, in: Trentmann, Frank and Just, Flemming (ed.): <i>Food and Conflict in Europe in the Age of the Two World Wars</i>. Basingstoke / New York: Palgrave, 2006, pp.&#160;143–171, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1403986843" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 1-4039-8684-3</a></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Cunningham, Marion (1990). <i>The Fannie Farmer cookbook</i>. illustrated by Lauren Jarrett (13th ed.). New York: <a href="/wiki/Alfred_A._Knopf" title="Alfred A. Knopf">Alfred A. Knopf</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-394-56788-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-394-56788-9">0-394-56788-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=Marion&amp;rft.aulast=Cunningham&amp;rft.btitle=The+Fannie+Farmer+cookbook&amp;rft.date=1990&amp;rft.edition=13th&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-394-56788-9&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Alfred+A.+Knopf&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Trager, James (1995). <i>The food chronology: a food lover's compendium of events and anecdotes from prehistory to the present</i>. Henry Holt. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8050-3389-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-8050-3389-0">0-8050-3389-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=James&amp;rft.aulast=Trager&amp;rft.btitle=The+food+chronology%3A+a+food+lover%27s+compendium+of+events+and+anecdotes+from+prehistory+to+the+present&amp;rft.date=1995&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-8050-3389-0&amp;rft.pub=Henry+Holt&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Davidson, Alan (1999). <i>The Oxford Companion to Food</i>. Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-19-211579-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-19-211579-0">0-19-211579-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=Alan&amp;rft.aulast=Davidson&amp;rft.btitle=The+Oxford+Companion+to+Food&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-19-211579-0&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation conference">D. Samuel (2000). "Brewing and baking". <i>Ancient Egyptian materials and technology. Eds: P.T. Nicholson &amp; I. Shaw. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press</i>. pp.&#160;537–576. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-521-45257-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-521-45257-0">0-521-45257-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.atitle=Brewing+and+baking&amp;rft.au=D.+Samuel&amp;rft.btitle=Ancient+Egyptian+materials+and+technology.+Eds%3A+P.T.+Nicholson+%26+I.+Shaw.+Cambridge%3A+Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.isbn=0-521-45257-0&amp;rft.pages=537-576&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Pyler, E. J. (1988). <i>Baking Science &amp; Technology 3rd Ed. vols. I &amp; II</i>. Sosland Publishing Company. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-882005-02-3" title="Special:BookSources/1-882005-02-3">1-882005-02-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABread&amp;rft.aufirst=E.+J.&amp;rft.aulast=Pyler&amp;rft.btitle=Baking+Science+%26+Technology+3rd+Ed.+vols.+I+%26+II&amp;rft.date=1988&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=1-882005-02-3&amp;rft.pub=Sosland+Publishing+Company&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
</ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
<table class="metadata plainlinks mbox-small" style="padding:0.25em 0.5em 0.5em 0.75em;border:1px solid #aaa;background:#f9f9f9;">
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<td colspan="2" style="padding-bottom:0.75em;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;text-align:center;">
<div style="clear:both;">Find more about<br />
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at Wikipedia's <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikimedia_sister_projects" title="Wikipedia:Wikimedia sister projects">sister projects</a></div>
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<td style="padding-top:0.75em;"><a href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" title="Search Wiktionary"><img alt="Search Wiktionary" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg/23px-Wiktionary-logo-en.svg.png" width="23" height="25" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg/35px-Wiktionary-logo-en.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg/46px-Wiktionary-logo-en.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="1089" /></a></td>
<td style="padding-top:0.75em;"><a href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" class="extiw" title="wikt:Special:Search/Bread">Definitions</a> from Wiktionary</td>
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<td><a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" title="Search Commons"><img alt="Search Commons" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/18px-Commons-logo.svg.png" width="18" height="25" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/28px-Commons-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/37px-Commons-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="1376" /></a></td>
<td><a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" class="extiw" title="c:Special:Search/Bread">Media</a> from Commons</td>
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<td><a href="//en.wikinews.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" title="Search Wikinews"><img alt="Search Wikinews" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg/25px-Wikinews-logo.svg.png" width="25" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg/38px-Wikinews-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg/50px-Wikinews-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="759" data-file-height="415" /></a></td>
<td><a href="//en.wikinews.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" class="extiw" title="n:Special:Search/Bread">News stories</a> from Wikinews</td>
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<td><a href="//en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" title="Search Wikiquote"><img alt="Search Wikiquote" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg/21px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png" width="21" height="25" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg/32px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg/42px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="355" /></a></td>
<td><a href="//en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" class="extiw" title="q:Special:Search/Bread">Quotations</a> from Wikiquote</td>
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<td><a href="//en.wikisource.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" title="Search Wikisource"><img alt="Search Wikisource" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/24px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png" width="24" height="25" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/36px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/48px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="410" data-file-height="430" /></a></td>
<td><a href="//en.wikisource.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" class="extiw" title="s:Special:Search/Bread">Source texts</a> from Wikisource</td>
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<td><a href="//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" title="Search Wikibooks"><img alt="Search Wikibooks" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg/25px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png" width="25" height="25" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg/38px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg/50px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /></a></td>
<td><a href="//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" class="extiw" title="b:Special:Search/Bread">Textbooks</a> from Wikibooks</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:25px;">
<td><a href="//en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" title="Search Wikiversity"><img alt="Search Wikiversity" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg/25px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png" width="25" height="23" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg/38px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg/50px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="900" /></a></td>
<td><a href="//en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Special:Search/Bread" class="extiw" title="v:Special:Search/Bread">Learning resources</a> from Wikiversity</td>
</tr>
</table>
<ul>
<li><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/16px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/24px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg/32px-Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="400" data-file-height="400" /> <a href="//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cookbook:Bread_Recipes" class="extiw" title="wikibooks:Cookbook:Bread Recipes">Bread Recipes</a> at Wikibook Cookbooks</li>
</ul>
<table class="navbox" style="border-spacing:0">
<tr>
<td style="padding:2px">
<table class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit">
<tr>
<th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="3">
<div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini">
<ul>
<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Bread" title="Template:Bread"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">v</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Bread" title="Template talk:Bread"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">t</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Bread&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">e</abbr></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div style="font-size:114%"><strong class="selflink">Bread</strong></div>
</th>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="3">
<div><b><a href="/wiki/List_of_breads" title="List of breads">List of breads</a></b></div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/List_of_breads" title="List of breads">Types</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brown_bread" title="Brown bread">Brown bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/White_bread" title="White bread">White bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Whole_wheat_bread" title="Whole wheat bread">Whole wheat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flatbread" title="Flatbread">Flatbread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Multigrain_bread" title="Multigrain bread">Multigrain bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quick_bread" title="Quick bread">Quick</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rye_bread" title="Rye bread">Rye bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Salt-rising_bread" title="Salt-rising bread">Salt-rising</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sandwich_bread" title="Sandwich bread">Sandwich bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Soda_bread" title="Soda bread">Soda bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sourdough" title="Sourdough">Sourdough</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Texas_toast" title="Texas toast">Texas toast</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Unleavened_bread" title="Unleavened bread">Unleavened</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
<td class="navbox-image" rowspan="13" style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px">
<div><a href="/wiki/File:Wei%C3%9Fbrot-1.jpg" class="image" title="White bread"><img alt="White bread" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Wei%C3%9Fbrot-1.jpg/146px-Wei%C3%9Fbrot-1.jpg" width="146" height="110" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Wei%C3%9Fbrot-1.jpg/219px-Wei%C3%9Fbrot-1.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Wei%C3%9Fbrot-1.jpg/292px-Wei%C3%9Fbrot-1.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3072" data-file-height="2304" /></a></div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Ingredients</th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Baker%27s_yeast" title="Baker's yeast">Baker's yeast</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Barm" title="Barm">Barm</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Calcium_propanoate" title="Calcium propanoate">Calcium propanoate</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Egg_(food)" title="Egg (food)">Eggs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fat" title="Fat">Fat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flour" title="Flour">Flour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flour_treatment_agent" title="Flour treatment agent">Flour treatment agent</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Leavening_agent" title="Leavening agent">Leavening agent</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Milk" title="Milk">Milk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Salt" title="Salt">Salt</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sugar" title="Sugar">Sugar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Water" title="Water">Water</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Equipment</th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Oven" title="Oven">Oven</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_machine" title="Bread machine">Bread machine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_pan" title="Bread pan">Bread pan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dough_scraper" title="Dough scraper">Dough scraper</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Farinograph" title="Farinograph">Farinograph</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lame_(kitchen_tool)" title="Lame (kitchen tool)">Lame</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Peel_(tool)" title="Peel (tool)">Peel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mixer_(cooking)" title="Mixer (cooking)">Stand mixer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Weighing_scale" title="Weighing scale">Weighing scales</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Processes</th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Autolysis_(biology)" title="Autolysis (biology)">Autolysis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Baking" title="Baking">Baking</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Biga_(bread_baking)" title="Biga (bread baking)">Biga</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chorleywood_bread_process" title="Chorleywood bread process">Chorleywood bread process</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kneading" title="Kneading">Kneading</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Leavening_agent" title="Leavening agent">Leavening</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maillard_reaction" title="Maillard reaction">Maillard reaction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/No-knead_bread" title="No-knead bread">No-knead bread</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Proofing_(baking_technique)" title="Proofing (baking technique)">Proofing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pre-ferment" title="Pre-ferment">Pre-ferment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sliced_bread" title="Sliced bread">Pre-slicing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sponge_and_dough" title="Sponge and dough">Sponge and dough</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Steaming" title="Steaming">Steaming</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Straight_dough" title="Straight dough">Straight dough</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vienna_bread" title="Vienna bread">Vienna process</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Uses</th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_crumbs" title="Bread crumbs">Bread crumbs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_bowl" title="Bread bowl">Bread bowl</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bread_pudding" title="Bread pudding">Bread pudding</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Crouton" title="Crouton">Croutons</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/French_toast" title="French toast">French toast</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stuffing" title="Stuffing">Stuffing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sandwich" title="Sandwich">Sandwiches</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Toast" title="Toast">Toast</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">Other</th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><strong class="selflink">Breadmaking</strong></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Baker_percentage" title="Baker percentage">Baker percentage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_bread" title="History of bread">History of bread</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">List articles</th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_American_breads" title="List of American breads">American breads</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_brand_name_breads" title="List of brand name breads">Brand name breads</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_bread_dishes" title="List of bread dishes">Bread dishes</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_British_breads" title="List of British breads">British breads</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Indian_breads" title="List of Indian breads">Indian breads</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Pakistani_breads" title="List of Pakistani breads">Pakistani breads</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_quick_breads" title="List of quick breads">Quick breads</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_sweet_breads" title="List of sweet breads">Sweet breads</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="3">
<div><b><img alt="Wikipedia book" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/16px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png" title="Wikipedia book" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/23px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/31px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="180" data-file-height="185" /> <a href="//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cookbook:Bread_Recipes" class="extiw" title="b:Cookbook:Bread Recipes">Recipes on WikiBooks</a></b><b><img alt="Category" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" title="Category" width="16" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="36" data-file-height="31" /> <a href="/wiki/Category:Breads" title="Category:Breads">Category:Breads</a></b><b><a href="/wiki/File:Foodlogo2.svg" class="image"><img alt="Foodlogo2.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Foodlogo2.svg/24px-Foodlogo2.svg.png" width="24" height="17" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Foodlogo2.svg/36px-Foodlogo2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Foodlogo2.svg/48px-Foodlogo2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="146" data-file-height="106" /></a> <a href="/wiki/Portal:Food" title="Portal:Food">Food portal</a></b></div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<table class="navbox" style="border-spacing:0">
<tr>
<td style="padding:2px">
<table class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit">
<tr>
<th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="3" style="background: wheat">
<div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini">
<ul>
<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Wheat" title="Template:Wheat"><abbr title="View this template" style="background: wheat;;background:none transparent;border:none;">v</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Wheat" title="Template talk:Wheat"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style="background: wheat;;background:none transparent;border:none;">t</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Wheat&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style="background: wheat;;background:none transparent;border:none;">e</abbr></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div style="font-size:114%"><a href="/wiki/Wheat" title="Wheat">Wheat</a></div>
</th>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: wheat"><a href="/wiki/History_of_agriculture" title="History of agriculture">History</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Domestication" title="Domestication">Domestication</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Shattering_(agriculture)" title="Shattering (agriculture)">Shattering</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Neolithic_Revolution" title="Neolithic Revolution">Neolithic Revolution</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tell_Abu_Hureyra" title="Tell Abu Hureyra">Tell Abu Hureyra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tell_Aswad" title="Tell Aswad">Tell Aswad</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Triticeae" title="Triticeae">Triticeae</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
<td class="navbox-image" rowspan="17" style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px">
<div><a href="/wiki/File:USDA_wheat.jpg" class="image"><img alt="USDA wheat.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/USDA_wheat.jpg/120px-USDA_wheat.jpg" width="120" height="176" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/USDA_wheat.jpg/180px-USDA_wheat.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/USDA_wheat.jpg/240px-USDA_wheat.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2150" data-file-height="3151" /></a></div>
</td>
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<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
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<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: wheat"><a href="/wiki/Taxonomy_of_wheat" title="Taxonomy of wheat">Types</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Common_wheat" title="Common wheat">Common</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Durum" title="Durum">Durum</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Einkorn_wheat" title="Einkorn wheat">Einkorn</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Emmer" title="Emmer">Emmer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Khorasan_wheat" title="Khorasan wheat">Khorasan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Norin_10_wheat" title="Norin 10 wheat">Norin 10</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Red_Fife_wheat" title="Red Fife wheat">Red Fife</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Spelt" title="Spelt">Spelt</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Winter_wheat" title="Winter wheat">Winter wheat</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: wheat"><a href="/wiki/Agronomy" title="Agronomy">Agronomy</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wheat_diseases" title="Wheat diseases">Wheat diseases</a> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_wheat_diseases" title="List of wheat diseases">list</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wheat_mildew" title="Wheat mildew">Wheat mildew</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: wheat"><a href="/wiki/Grain_trade" title="Grain trade">Trade</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/AWB_Limited" title="AWB Limited">Australian Wheat Board</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Canadian_Wheat_Board" title="Canadian Wheat Board">Canadian Wheat Board</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Corn_exchange" title="Corn exchange">Corn exchange</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_countries_by_wheat_exports" title="List of countries by wheat exports">Exports</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_Grains_Council" title="International Grains Council">International Wheat Council</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Peak_wheat" title="Peak wheat">Peak wheat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_wheat_production_statistics" title="International wheat production statistics">Production statistics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Protein_premium" title="Protein premium">Protein premium</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wheat_pools_in_Canada" title="Wheat pools in Canada">Wheat pools in Canada</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: wheat"><a href="/wiki/Plant_morphology" title="Plant morphology">Parts of the plant and their uses</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<dl>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Plant_stem" title="Plant stem">Stalk</a></dt>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Straw" title="Straw">Straw</a></dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Seed" title="Seed">Seed</a></dt>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Bran" title="Bran">Bran</a></dd>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Cereal_germ" title="Cereal germ">Germ</a></dd>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Chaff" title="Chaff">Chaff</a> (husk)</dd>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Endosperm" title="Endosperm">Endosperm</a>
<dl>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Gluten" title="Gluten">Gluten</a></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: wheat"><a href="/wiki/Food_preparation" title="Food preparation" class="mw-redirect">Basic preparations of the kernel</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<dl>
<dt>None</dt>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Wheat_berry" title="Wheat berry">Wheat berry</a></dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Mill_(grinding)" title="Mill (grinding)">Milling</a></dt>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Farina_(food)" title="Farina (food)">Farina</a></dd>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Wheat_flour" title="Wheat flour">Flour</a> (<a href="/wiki/Category:Flour" title="Category:Flour">types</a>)</dd>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Wheat_middlings" title="Wheat middlings">Middlings</a></dd>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Semolina" title="Semolina">Semolina</a></dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Parboiling" title="Parboiling">Parboiling</a></dt>
<dd><a href="/wiki/Bulgur" title="Bulgur">Bulgur</a></dd>
</dl>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: wheat">As an <a href="/wiki/Ingredient" title="Ingredient">ingredient</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>